Umar Ryad


On the basis of fresh documents the article tried to reconstruct a historical description of the establishment of the most well-known reformist magazine al-Manār. The personal papers of its founder Muhammad Rašīd Ridā uncover new information about the background of his journalistic plans and religious aspirations after his arrival in Egypt in 1897. The paper reconsiders Ridā's early religious formation and apprenticeship in his homeland Syria; his position in the printing press in Egypt; the early funding of his magazine; his early integration in the Egyptian life; the early circulation of al-Manār; and his perspectives on the craft of printing in serving religious sciences.


Edited by Umar Ryad

The present volume focuses on the political perceptions of the Hajj, its global religious appeal to Muslims, and the European struggle for influence and supremacy in the Muslim world in the age of pre-colonial and colonial empires. In the late fifteenth century and early sixteenth century, a pivotal change in seafaring occurred, through which western Europeans played important roles in politics, trade, and culture. Viewing this age of empires through the lens of the Hajj puts it into a different perspective, by focusing on how increasing European dominance of the globe in pre-colonial
and colonial times was entangled with Muslim religious action, mobility, and agency. The study of Europe’s connections with the Hajj therefore tests the hypothesis that the concept of agency is not limited to isolated parts of the globe. By adopting the “tools of empires,” the Hajj, in itself a global activity, would become part of global and trans-cultural history.

With contributions by: Aldo D’Agostini; Josep Lluís Mateo Dieste; Ulrike Freitag; Mahmood Kooria; Michael Christopher Low; Adam Mestyan; Umar Ryad; John Slight and Bogusław R. Zagórski.