Gene doping is considered a future legitimate case for the use of performance enhancement in sport. Gene doping exemplifies fundamental individual and communal attitudes towards biomedical enhancement technologies and their use. Thus the anthropological question arises which interpretations of the human condition are explicitly or implicitly at work here. The authors present an overview of current developments in the application of genetic enhancement technologies in elite sports and reflect on the guiding values involved. They conclude that gene technology has the potential to make what is achievable by technology the measure of all human activities. Thus gene doping raises questions of general relevance to society far beyond sports. These cannot be addressed by a simple mechanism of bans and controls.