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Abstract

It is well-known that predicates play a central role in the constitution of events and facts. In the present paper, some ideas stemming from grammar theories are used to define and to back up logical relations between philosophical entities based on predicate forming operations. We suggest formal tools for such operations and give a sketch how the formal results allow to solve several puzzles. At the end, a new kind of categorial grammer shows the linguistic relevance of the method.

In: Things, Facts and Events

Abstract

We consider Russell’s theory of negative facts and construct a suitable theoretical model that provides an ontological basis for this theory. Proceeding from the hypothesis that negative facts cannot be eliminated and cannot be reduced to any sort of positive facts, we argue that negative (atomic) facts should be logically expressed by means of a special type of predication – a negative predication. The introduction of negative properties enables us to justify the essential discrimination between positive and negative predications. In the final section, we present a model-theoretical semantics for negative facts.

In: Things, Facts and Events
Authors: and

Abstract

In times of modern information technology, the world of science is becoming smaller. Does this mean that there will be no more provinces? We do not think so. Setting out from Leszek Nowak's thought "province is where one thinks not on one's own account but on account of another," we indicate a number of processes (both internal and external to the sciences) that perpetuate provinces. These processes are driven by specific access to scientific knowledge, by education, by new forms of communication, by shortage of financial support and the concentration of resources. We look at the interplay between criteria of theory choice and location on the scientific map. Next, we explore the connection between geo-social and scientific provinces, taking into consideration political and cultural parameters. The conceptual framework of metropolises and provinces in science turns out to be, though not all-embracing, an extremely fruitful one.

In: Thinking about Provincialism in Thinking
Authors: and

Abstract

In times of modern information technology, the world of science is becoming smaller. Does this mean that there will be no more provinces? We do not think so. Setting out from Leszek Nowak's thought "province is where one thinks not on one's own account but on account of another," we indicate a number of processes (both internal and external to the sciences) that perpetuate provinces. These processes are driven by specific access to scientific knowledge, by education, by new forms of communication, by shortage of financial support and the concentration of resources. We look at the interplay between criteria of theory choice and location on the scientific map. Next, we explore the connection between geo-social and scientific provinces, taking into consideration political and cultural parameters. The conceptual framework of metropolises and provinces in science turns out to be, though not all-embracing, an extremely fruitful one.

In: Thinking about Provincialism in Thinking
In: Things, Facts and Events
Volume Editors: , , and
The volume deals with ontological and semantical issues concerning things, facts and events. Ontology tells us about what there is, whereas semantics provides answers to how we refer to what there is. Basic ontological categories are commonly accepted along with basic linguistic types, and linguistic types are accepted as basic if and because they refer to acknowledged ontological categories. In that sense, both disciplines are concerned with structure - the structure of the world and the structure of our language.
An extended introduction overviews the topic as a whole, presenting in detail its history and the main contemporary approaches and discussions.
More than 20 contributions by internationally acknowledged scholars make the volume a comprehensive study of some very fundamental philosophical entities.