The Van Royen Herbarium National Herbarium of the Netherlands
About this herbarium
Adrianus van Royen was born in Leiden on 11 November 1704. He studied medicine and botany under Herman Boerhaave and obtained his Ph.D. in 1728. In 1732 he became Professor in these subjects and as such he was one of the few allowed to make extensive collections in the Leiden Botanic Garden, then a centre of novelties brought in by the ships of the V.O.C. (Dutch East India Company) from all over the world.
No wonder that Linnaeus during his frequent visits to Leiden between 1735 and 1738 struck up a close friendship with this other dedicated botanist, which lasted a life time. This was the period in which Linnaeus formulated his ideas on taxonomy and nomenclature that made him famous. Together Linnaeus and Van Royen botanized in the Botanic Gardens of Leiden and Amsterdam, the surrounding areas and studied the numerous natural objects available in the world famous collections of the Dutch cabinets to which Van Royen, because of his social standing, had easy access. During the last winter of his stay in Holland Linnaeus lived at Van Royen's house. Also during that winter Linnaeus was a member of a medical fellowship with a.o. Gronovius and Van Swieten. They met on Saturday evenings (Turner, 1835), on which occasions Linnaeus without doubt discussed his budding ideas. Van Royen and Linnaeus collaborated with Johannes Burman of Amsterdam in the production of Rumphius' Herbarium Amboinense (1741-1755). In all, a close social and scientific relationship between Linnaeus and Adriaan van Royen and his collections is evident. This herbarium is one of the few not his own that Linnaeus could study extensively over 3 years of time. He also assisted in the production of Van Royen's Florae Leydensis Prodromus (1740) based on it. In this work the species then growing in the Garden and around Leiden were enumerated according to the Linnean tenets. The value Linnaeus placed on it is evident from the fact that it is always the first non-Linnean citation given in the Species Plantarum (1753). Several of the new species published in it are exclusively based on Van Royen's collections of dried and living plants.
Many sheets in A. van Royen's Herbarium have the plants mounted in the pots and other paraphernalia that were customary in mid-18th Century Dutch collections. On these sheets the text that was used for the Prodromus is written and subsequently cited more or less verbatim by Linnaeus in the Species Plantarum. By consequence the Herbarium contains a great number of syntypes and even holotypes of Linnean names and is therefore one of the major herbaria to be consulted in solving problems in nomenclature and typification. The Herbarium may contain as many as 2000-3000 specimens relevant for the typification of Linnaean names (Wijnands, 1983).
The Herbarium passed on to Van Royen's nephew and successor, David van Royen (1727-1799), who greatly enlarged it. David van Royen corresponded with Linnaeus as is witnessed from the notes on the sheets. It is known that in 1769, 1771 and 1777 he received dried plants from Ceylon. Also, Governor Rijk Tulbagh sent dried or living plants from the Cape to Leiden in 1752, which were collected by Auge. Later on Thunberg regularly sent dried plants from the Cape (Karsten, 1939); he also donated a collection of Japanese plants in 1778 (Miquel, 1865).
Before the Van Royen Herbarium came to the Rijksherbarium, it was preserved in the Leiden Botanic Garden. When visiting the Garden in 1824, J.A. Schultes communicated that the collection of Van Royen was "still fairly large". Amongst it he saw a parcel from Jac. Breyne and one of Vaillant. There were parcels from Thunberg, on several of which was written "Plantae Capensis", as well as several parcels "Planta Zeylanensis," one of them "ex herbario Hermanniano" (Schultes, 1824).
The specimens belonging to the Van Royen Herbarium are now kept separate. Before that they were incorporated in the general collections. From time to time still specimens which have belonged to the Van Royens are (re)discovered. Generally the sheets are annotated 'Hb. Royen' in a 19th century unknown handwriting. In some cases these annotations are clearly wrong and some sheets that have to be considered as genuine Van Royen material lack this annotation.
It is not always easy to attribute specimens as having belonged to the holdings of Adriaan and David van Royen. Sheets annotated with Linnean binomina and references to later Linnean works, often the 2nd edition of the Species Plantarum, in the handwriting of David van Royen, can of course be attributed to their herbarium. The sheets on which in Adriaan van Royen's handwriting a full reference is given to his Prodromus of 1740, and to earlier synonyms of e.g., Hermann and Commelin, are obviously his own specimens. Because the collections of Adriaan came into the possession of David it is not exceptional that sheets are found on which both handwritings are present.
At unspecified times collections from various sources have been incorporated in their herbarium: specimens can be found originating from H. Boerhaave, J. Burman, G. Clifford, J.F. Gronovius, A. von Haller, P. Hermann, B. de Jussieu, J.G. Koenig, Fr. Ruysch, C.P. Thunberg, J.P. de Tournefort, Séb. Vaillant, and many others. On some sheets several labels with different handwritings are pasted. In these cases often more than one dried plant of the same species is mounted on the sheet. At the time the Van Royen herbarium was part of the collections of Leiden University, the dried plants belonging to the same species, but originating from different collections, were probably kept in a single folder. In the process of remounting the collections of the University for the Rijksherbarium, these may have been mounted on one sheet.
An additional complication in attributing specimens to the Van Royen herbarium are the specimens from the Meerburg herbarium. Nicolaas Meerburg (1734-1814) was Hortulanus of the Leiden Botanical Garden under David van Royen. It is known that he also was in the possession of a herbarium. Except specimens from Van Royen, his herbarium contained collections from a.o. Dillenius, and Haller, just as the Van Royen collections. For this and above mentioned reasons it is obvious that one can not always be absolutely certain that a specimen, now preserved in the Van Royen herbarium, really belonged to the original holdings of the Van Royens. Such specimens have been included for completeness sake.
Apart from the sheets in the Rijksherbarium, other Van Royen material, both of Adriaan and David is represented in LINN, S-Linn, BM-Cliff, OXF-Sherard, G-Burman, G-DC, San Francisco-Houston, and the herbarium of J.E. Smith in Liverpool (LIV).
The Van Royens were also in the posession of a carpological collection. This collection has been studied by Joseph Gaertner (1732-1791) during his visit to Leiden in 1778. Here and in the Botanical Garden he found many new fruits and seeds mainly from the East Indies of which he was allowed to take home representative specimens (Stafleu, 1969). In his "De fructibus et seminibus plantarum" (1788¾1791) Gaertner described new taxa on the basis of seeds and fruits from the Van Royen collections. Therefore this part of the Van Royen collections contains a number of his types.
From the now remaining part it can be deduced that this carpological cabinet for the greater part was formed by seeds from Ceylon. On the labels of these Ceylonese specimens J.G. Koenig (1728-1785) is mentioned as collector. The labels show dates between 1754 and 1758, therefore it is impossible that Koenig has been the collector. Koenig collected on Ceylon in 1777, 1780 and 1781. (Heniger, 1988). Most probably these seeds are the remains of the seeds that were sent each year from Ceylon to the Botanical Gardens of Amsterdam and Leiden. This carpological collection has also been included in these microfiches.
G. Thijsse, J.F. Veldkamp
Heniger, J., 1988. “Botanisch onderzoek op Ceylon in de V.O.C.-tijd”, in: R. Kromhout (ed.). Het machtige Eylant. Ceylon en de V.O.C. ('s Gravenhage: SDU).
Karsten, M.C., 1939. “Carl Peter Thunberg. An early investigator of Cape Botany”, in: Journal of South African Botany 5: 1-27; 87-104; 105-155.
Miquel, F.A.W., 1865. Verslag over den staat van 's Rijks Herbarium te Leiden, en de aldaar verrigte werkzaamheden gedurende het jaar 1865 (Leiden).
Schultes, J.A., 1824. “Auszug aus einem Schreiben an Se. Excellenz, den Herrn Grafen de Bray u.s.w.”, in: Flora 7 (46): 721-727.
Stafleu, F.A., 1969. “Joseph Gaertner and his carpologica”, in: Acta. Bot. Neerl. 18 (1): 216-223.
Turner, D., 1835. Extracts from the literary and scientific correspondence of Richard Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., of Brierley, Yorkshire (Yarmouth).
Wijnands, D.O., 1983. The botany of the Commelins (Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema).
Hermann / Londoner Zeitung (1859 - 1914) A publication of the German 1848 exiles in England
The London German weekly Hermann, which started publication on 8 January 1859, was not the first periodical to be launched by one of the revolutionary exiles of 1848-9. It did, however, prove to be the longest-lived by far and was almost the only German newspaper in Britain ever to survive beyond infancy. Renamed Londoner Zeitung: Hermann in 1870, its demise came only with the outbreak of the First World War. The last issue (no 2,903) was published on 22 August 1914.
Founder-editor of Hermann was Gottfried Kinkel (1815-1882), a theologian, art historian and poet. Formerly a university professor at Bonn, he had been sentenced to life imprisonment for political offences after the revolution, but managed to escape from Spandau jail to London in 1850. The paper was started with money from the "revolution loan", a fund for propaganda purposes raised in 1852 mainly from German emigrants and refugees in the United States. Kinkel continued to be associated with Hermann after Ernst Juch (d. 1900) became editor in July 1859. Later, Juch also acquired the title rights, but shortage of capital subsequently forced him to take in partners of different political persuasion and eventually to abandon the paper altogether.
Throughout the 1860s Hermann was advertised in the British Newspaper Press Directory as "liberal" and as advocating "the principles which it considers necessary for a free and united Germany". At first this meant promoting a Greater German republic, but the paper soon shifted to support the Nationalverein which campaigned for a monarchical,Prussian-led Kleindeutschland, albeit on the basis of then abortive Frankfurt constitution of 1849 with its liberal freedoms and democratic suffrage. The force behind this shift was the chairman of the London branch of the Nationalverein, Alexis Heintzmann (1811-1865), an erstwhile state prosecutor from the Rhineland who had prospered in exile as a businessman and now invested heavily in Hermann. Notwithstanding its kleindeutsch position, however, the paper remained strictly opposed to Bismarck's domestic and foreign policies even when the Prussian-dominated unification from above began to take shape in 1867 to the enthusiastic cheers of the National Liberals.
Subscribers and circulation
The exact print-run of Hermann is difficult to establish. As early as May 1859 Karl Marx (1818-1883) noted resentfully that it had 1,700 subscribers, while Das Volk, a rival publication supported by him, was sinking. In 1867 Hermann was reported to be selling 2,000 copies in London alone. Even so, the paper only just managed to stay afloat, and more than once it was on the brink of bankruptcy. The dilemma every editor faced was that for commercial reasons Hermann had to recruit subscribers in Germany, and in order to be allowed to do this, political moderation was highly advisable. On the other hand, the paper was bound to prove more attractive to German readers if it took a principled stand and made full use of the unfettered press freedom in Britain. This necessitated a careful balancing act, which was further complicated by the political tensions between the radical emigré writers and the moderate persuasions of the German business community in London on whom they depended for advertising revenue.
The paper's initially cautious approach and the tolerant attitude adopted by Prussian officials during the "New Era" came to an end in the autumn of 1859 with a series of sensational articles exposing the dubious and illegal methods which Wilhelm Stieber (1818-1882), head of the Berlin criminal police, had used in his struggle against all forms of political dissent. When the confiscation of individual issues failed to produce the desired effect, Hermann was banned indefinitely in January 1860.
However, satisfaction at having helped to bring about Stieber's downfall could not compensate for the financial losses Hermann incurred once it could no longer be sold in Germany. In the summer of 1861, after the accession of a new king and an amnesty for the forty-eighters, Juch therefore appealed to Berlin for the ban to be lifted. As a result, the sale of Hermann in Germany was once again permitted. However, with the escalation of the Prussian constitutional conflict under Bismarck and his repressive campaign against the Nationalverein, the paper was banned again in the autumn of 1863. This is how it remained until the spring of 1869 when Arnold Heinemann became editor. At the time, few people knew the details of how the Prussian ambassador to Britain had acquired the rights to Hermann by paying off Juch's debts to the printers, but no reader could be in any doubt that the paper, to quote Marx, had "passed into Bismarck's hands". In a programmatic leader Heinemann proclaimed his intention "to abandon the old course of aimless opposition and to serve instead with fresh strength the reawakened national identity of the German people." For a decade the Londoner Zeitung, as it now became, described its editorial line in the Newspaper Press Directory as "advocating the policy of the German Empire". However, this caused the paper's sales to fall, which in turn made Bismarck query the purpose of continuing to subsidise it. Eventually, another change of direction occurred in late 1879 with the appointment as editor of Ike Holthusen (1830-1898) who once again hoisted "the good old liberal flag".
Culturally oriented sections
Gradually, during the following decades, (international) political news was replaced with a variety of more culturally oriented sections and supplements. Though much of what occurred in England, Continental Europe and elsewhere was still reported in columns like “This Week's Chronicle” (Chronik der Woche), this type of information became more concise and telegraphic in style. Aspects other than editorials and political reporting came to dominate the pages of the Londoner Zeitung: Hermann. Yet the significance of Londoner Zeitung: Hermann remains indisputable. Decreased attention for politics meant that the management of the paper sought to enlarge its audience through other means. Both in the pages of its many supplements, and in the “regular” pages, one obtains a direct picture of the cultural and economic milieu in which the paper's middle-class readership (still predominantly of German origins) existed – or to which they aspired. In one of the most intriguing developments, the paper started to diversify its offerings to target specific groups that might expand its readership: women, children, businessmen, civil servants and bank employees all got their section in or even a supplement to the paper. Despite these efforts, the mere fact that it was still published in German must have considerably limited the potential readership. But its persistence ensures that we can still apply this resource in studies of parts of the German community in England – one that reached its last edition at the outbreak of the Great War. Much of what originated in the 19th century suddenly belonged to an era with very different preoccupations and preferences.
A clear picture
The IDC microfilm edition of Hermann allows easy access to a unique and rare source documenting the political development of the revolutionary exiles in London during the pivotal years from 1859 to 1914 and providing at the same time a mirror image of the colourful social and cultural life of the German community in Victorian England.
A collection of manuscript sources documenting peasant revolts and published sources documenting modern nationalism in Indonesia. Manuscripts and books documenting the rural unrest in Indonesia, in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries are from the Netherlands State Archives, The Hague; the sources on modern nationalism come from the library of the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, Leiden.
Texts in Dutch, Indonesian and English.
Card catalogues and files on microfiche: alphabetical and classified card catalogues; Judaica collection card catalogue; finding aids to manuscript and archive collections such as the Martin Buber archives, the Schwadron Autographic Collection, and a large collection of Arabic manuscripts.
Card catalogue entries in Hebrew, Yiddish, Arabic, Cyrillic, and other (Western) languages.
Latin American Anarchist and Labour Periodicals (c.1880-1940) From the International Institute of Social History (IISH), Amsterdam
Collection of Latin American anarchist and labour periodicals. The bulk of the material (collected by the Austrian anarchist and historian Max Nettlau) covers the formative anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist period in the history of Latin American labour movements (1890-1920).
Guide in printed and electronic form, organized by country.
Most texts in Spanish, but several in German, Italian and
The institute for Social History in Amsterdam (IISH), founded in 1935, is a centre for the study of social history, particularly the rise and development of the working classes.
Gordon, E., M.M. Hall, et al., "A survey of Brazilian and Argentine materials at the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis in Amsterdam", Latin American Research Review, 1973:3
Buve, R., C. Holthuis, "A survey of Mexican materials at the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis in Amsterdam", Latin American Research Review, 1975:1
De Groot, P.L., "A survey of Mexican materials at the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis in Amsterdam", Latin American Research Review, 1977:2
Cataloging efforts by the following libraries: University of Michigan University Library, Harvard College Library, Cornell University Library, The General Libraries of The University of Texas at Austin.
The Archives of the Council for World Mission (incorporating the archives of the London Missionary Society) are among the oldest archives on missionary work, with files of correspondence and travel reports dating back to the eighteenth century.
This material is now housed in the Library of the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. The special value of these archives lies in the wealth of unpublished historical source material pertaining to colonial countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. One of the rare treasures, for instance, is the collection of 115 original letters - with a considerable number of insertions - written by David Livingstone, together with copies of letters sent to him.
The importance of missionary archives as a primary resource continues to grow as their value for the study of a variety of scholarly disciplines and subjects becomes ever more widely recognized. This collection lists 19th and 20th century archive materials relating to Africa, south of Sahara, and to Madagascar and Mauritius. There are large sections on Southern, Central and West Africa and lesser amounts on Eastern and Western Central Africa.