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Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Part I: 1600-1825

Part 1 is composed of catalogues from Volume 1 of the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt. The 5,472 auction catalogues in this microfiche collection represent 4,732 different Lugt numbers and 259 items not listed in the Répertoire.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.
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Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Part II: 1826-1860

Part 2 is composed of catalogues from Volume 2 of the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt. The 8,121 auction catalogues in this microfiche collection represent 7,010 different Lugt numbers and 136 items not listed in the Répertoire.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.
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Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Part III: 1861-1880

Part 3 is based on (the first section of) Volume 3 of the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt. The 5,655 auction catalogues in this microfiche collection represent 4,614 different Lugt numbers and 153 items not listed in the Répertoire.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.
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Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Part IV: 1881-1900

Part 4 is based on (the second section of) Volume 3 of the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt. The 8,885 auction catalogues in this microfiche collection represent 6,664 different Lugt numbers and 227 items not listed in the Répertoire.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.

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Various Authors & Editors

Early Russian Cinema, Part 1
Russian Cinematographic Press (1907-1918)

Cinema in late-imperial Russia
In a quantitative sense Russia's cinematographic press comprises a modest segment of the general stream of the Russian periodical press at the beginning of the 20th century. However, in the dynamic of its development, the tempo of its reproduction and distribution, it far outstripped publication of all other contemporary genres and directions, and in this fact alone vividly reflected the general popularity of cinema in Russian society. In view of the fact that the documents connected with the history of the early Russian cinema and the overwhelming majority of materials on film have not survived up to this time, these publications constitute a unique collection of testimonials about the general and particular characteristics of the Russian cinematographic press of the 1900s and 1910s.

The art of the new age
The pages of these cinematographic publications have preserved for history not only the first examples of cinema theory, but also a very wide range of reflections of the artistic consciousness of the art of the new age. They chronicled all the variety and individual details of the cinematographic life of the Russian capitals and provinces, recorded consecutively the growth of cinematography in the cultural life of the country. The publications dedicated to the screen carefully documented the dynamic of the development of film production and distribution, traced the actions of the authorities in controlling screenings and noted all other accompanying factors and circumstances affecting the establishment of the new art.

The collection
Examining these sources, the researcher can reconstruct the film repertoire and assemble almost a complete list of domestic and foreign films shown on screens in Russia; he will find in them a detailed description of pictures, reviews by critics, censored materials, etc. In addition, they contain extremely valuable information about other forms of contemporary entertainment culture - the theater of miniatures, cabaret and music hall.
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Various Authors & Editors

Cult of Body: Sports and Physical Culture in Russia, 1891-1919

Sports and Physical Culture in Russia continues the new IDC series Mass Culture and Entertainment in Russia. This series comprises collections of unique material about various forms of popular culture and entertainment industry in Tsarist and Soviet Russia. This collection is particularly significant because sports provided opportunities for transitions from tradition to modernity: athletic competition broke down class barriers, brought women into public spaces, and encouraged new modes of behavior and self-presentation.

Topics
This collection offers extraordinary sources for researchers into a variety of topics. The most obvious beneficiary is the sports historian; this discipline profits largely from the scholarly recognition that sports form an essential aspect of any society's culture. Sports are essential to the evolution of the modern personality in terms of health, competitiveness and team play. Tourism, another growth field in academic studies, relates directly to sports. Most significantly, contemporary interest in sexuality is informed by sports periodicals. Not only are gender roles transformed through sports, but the visuals in these publications illustrate emergent feminine and masculine ideals.

This collection contains a wide range of information on various sports in Russia:
• Sports in general
• Airplanes, Automobiles
• Body Building and Wrestling
• Football (Soccer)
• Horse Racing
• Tourism: Cycling and Mountaineering
• Skating

Physical Culture and Sports at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
By the turn of the twentieth century, urban Russians found themselves swept up in the "physical culture" movement that had engulfed much of Western Europe. Military conflicts had inspired governments to pay attention to the physical fitness of their populations. Sporting competitions offered a unique forum for the development of a national identity. Imperial expansion also required a combination of physical and psychological superiority that could be enhanced through sports. The rapid industrialization had brought urbanization, which generated anxieties about modernity taking its toll on the human body. Fitness clubs began sprouting up, organizations that brought together members of the emergent middle classes with shared interest in self-improvement. This was complemented by organized athletic competitions. It is this dialectic of individual effort and team spirit that makes sports so valuable as a source for analyzing the transition from tradition to modernity.

Sports played a dynamic role at a moment in Russian history, when a more traditional agrarian society transformed into a modern industrial one. Regulated by clearly articulated rules that were enforced by self-discipline, sports offered an alternative behavior model to the one that was feared by the critics of mass culture. Athletics brought women out in new public spaces, and created opportunities for cooperation among all classes.

Russian Sporting Periodicals
The first journals devoted to sporting activities provided information about horse racing and hunting, especially from the 1870s. The most substantial foundation for change, though, resulted from the rapid industrialization of the 1890s that created the social and economic basis for a middle class. With structured jobs came leisure time and disposable income, even if only modest. Industrialization also brought attention to the stress of modernity on the human organism, which prompted Russians to recognize that their bodies could benefit from a new orientation toward culture, recognition that it was physical as well as intellectual. As middle-class Russians began organizing into clubs, they published small journals that disseminated information. The bicyclists were the first to do this, with Tsiklist. In fact, they were emblematic of the connection between physical culture and modernity: their clubs included women, and met socially in Cyclist Cafés. That their journals became absorbed into other sports-oriented publications tells more about the increase in sports than a decrease in cyclists. Although the majority of periodicals in this collection, such as K sportu! (Let the Games Begin!) and Silai I zdorov'e (Strength and Health), cover all types of sports, journals that focus on individual sports are also included.

Airplanes, Automobiles and Yachts
At first blush these might seem too elitist to be included in a collection designed to provide sources on mass culture. Competitions, however, became extraordinarily popular spectator sports. These periodicals supply information about Russian technological developments, especially the more technical ones, such as Avtomobil'noe delo (Automobile Affairs). But the racing competitions emphasized the sporting aspect, and automobiles became included with other types of sports. When motors could be attached to boats, the notion of the "yacht" became less imperial, more sporty. Moreover, these competitions were often international, which provided a source for national pride that was not restricted to the participants themselves, but spilled over to the fans.

Body Building and Wrestling
One of the most popular individual sports was body building, the quintessence of the physical culture movement. Body building laid the foundation of the physical culture movement because it promoted individual health. As men began to work out together in gyms, body building opened an important homosocial space in modernizing Russia. This helped to improve the status of wrestling, making it more than a circus entertainment. Moreover, wrestlers performed competitively before audiences that also included women. "Professor of Athletics" Ivan Lebedev's Gerkules, 1912-1917, ultimately circulated most widely, and the addition of fiction and history about the sport anchored it in the imagination of the general population. Silai I zdorov'e, 1909-1914, extended the physical culture movement beyond the strictly masculine, and Illiustrirovannyi zhurnal atletika i sport, which can be translated Sports Illustrated, anticipated the contemporary journal familiar to all sports fans.

Football/Soccer
Introduced into Russia by the British managers of several factories, football reflected the modern workplace with its strict regulations and dependence upon co-operation among team members. Playing the game developed physical prowess, which underscored that competition, depended upon athleticism rather than social position. The sport quickly moved beyond the factories; neighborhoods pitched in to purchase balls, and makeshift fields allowed boys around the country to cobble together teams and play with one another, in front of expanding crowds. Today the most popular sport in the world, the football periodicals chart Russia's entrance into competition.

Horse Racing
The "sport of kings," horse racing attracts the most viewers because of the attraction of legalized gambling on the outcome. Among all sports, horse racing had by far the most periodicals devoted to it because of the racing forms that published the lists of "favorites" on the eve of race days. The selected periodicals included here recreate the aura of the hippodrome, where although the prices for seating separated spectators according to social class, the enthusiasm for the thoroughbreds brought all together in spirit. The Russian penchant for gambling is well known, and these publications provide a flavor missing in the sociological tracts that condemn this vice.

Skating
Skaters took to the ice and to the roller rinks. They competed against each other and played together. Propriety permitted men to hold women in their arms, purportedly in order to maintain their balance. Skating improved athleticism, and was also the most social of sports. Roller rinks were also the site of several sexual scandals, because the paid instructors sometimes doubled as "Alfonses," or paid male escorts. Such journals as Obozrenie kinematografov, sketing-ringov, uveselenii I sporta (Review of Cinema, Skating Rinks, Entertainment, and Sports) locate skating at the center of a variety of entertainments, whereas K sportu! and Vestnik sporta (The Sporting Herald) emphasize the national and international competitions.

Tourism: Bicycling and Mountain Climbing
Sports also provided impetus to the boom in commercial tourism at the turn of the century. If the great social advantage of bicycles was that they provided a comparatively inexpensive means of individualized transportation, cycling was also fun and quickly developed into a competitive sport. The combination of fun and transportation turned cycling into a medium for touring, as is evident from the fact that around 1900 local cycling clubs started renaming themselves "tourist" and sponsoring members on local tours. Mountain climbers, although obviously less widely dispersed than bicycling, also began forming clubs and organizing tourist activities. These periodicals are important to studying tourism, and how this developed into nationalism. Tsiklist (The Cyclist), a cycling journal, 1895-1904, integrated cycling with other sports, just as Russkii turist (The Russian Tourist), 1899-1913, brought related athletic activities into tourism.

Prof. Louise McReynolds, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.
Restricted Access

Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.
Restricted Access

Various Authors & Editors

The Colonial Economy in the Netherlands Indies.
Part 1: The Commission to Investigate the Sugar Manufactories on Java, 1854-1857

Short background
In the early 1830s the Dutch introduced the “cultuurstelsel” (cultivation system) into their East Indies colony of Java. This system amounted to forcing the native Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops, in particular sugar and coffee, to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company ( Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and by the early 1850s circumstances such as new famines and decreasing sugar prices and increasing beet-sugar production led the minister of the Colonies to order an extensive investigation into the system of government sugar cultivation in Java. A commission headed by the former inspector of cultivations, G. Umbgrove, was appointed by the governor-general to accomplish that task by a decision of 8 December 1853. After nearly four years of continuous work, which met with resistance from various quarters among the “residents” (district governors) whose cooperation was necessary to carry out the research, they produced a voluminous report with many appendices on 14 September 1857. The commission was disbanded in February 1858. The report and accompanying documentation were then sent to the director of cultivations and later the Council of the Indies for their advice and was submitted to the minister in The Hague by the governor-general in February 1859. In June 1860 he issued new principles for the government’s sugar cultivations and in 1862 the report and appendices were also sent to Parliament as background information for the debate on the ministry’s budget for 1863. Parliament decided to have the report and some of the appendices printed for its own use (only a few copies are extant in the Netherlands). Dissatisfaction with the cultivation system remained and it was gradually abolished. The Agrarian Law of 1870, which made the establishment of private enterprises in the Indies possible, was a decisive moment in the process. A more extensive history of the Commission and its activities in Dutch by archivist H.B.N.B. Adam can be found below on pages 11-18. It also includes lists of the colonial officials of this period, the vagaries of the documents in the ensuing years, including details of what was printed by parliament, and the principles he followed in compiling his inventory.

The collection
Besides the report itself (inventory number 1 below, in clear-hand manuscript), the collection contains a major series of descriptions and statistics (called “monographs” by the Commission) for all the sugar manufactories in 13 residencies on Java. These documents contain a wealth of information, not only on sugar cultivation itself, but also on the social situation of the native population in the sugar-producing areas and form the core of this archive. They were never printed and are available only in manuscript (see inventory numbers 10-197 below). They are arranged by residency and divided by Adam into two sections, the monograph itself (inv. nos. 10-103) and the answers by the residents to the so-called “twelve questions” about the cultivations posed by the governor-general (inv. nos. 104-197).

In addition to these, other appendices cover objections to and complaints about the system ( bezwaren) from the indigenous population, colonial officials and holders of the government sugar-cultivation contracts (Appendix S, inv. nos. 199-211). These are also arranged by residency and are extant in both the printed and manuscript versions (indicated by hs. for handschrift). Other appendices concern the Commission’s conclusions (inv. nos. 212-214), proposals (nos. 215-227, also never printed), and summaries of the situation in each residency (nos. 228-240). Various numbers reproduce circulars, model contracts, models for the research to be carried out, and overviews and tables concerning surface area cultivated, yields and other matters (nos. 2-9, 198, 241). The availability of this valuable, but insufficiently known source material on microfiche will excite broad interest among historians of colonialism and other scholars.
Restricted Access

Various Authors & Editors

The Colonial Economy in the Netherlands Indies
Part 2: The Commission for Industrial Development in the Netherlands Indies, 1915-1926

Short background
In the early 1830s the Dutch introduced the “cultuurstelsel” (cultivation system) into their East Indies colony of Java. This system amounted to forcing the native Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops, in particular sugar and coffee, to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company ( Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and by the early 1850s circumstances such as new famines and decreasing sugar prices and increasing beet-sugar production led the minister of the Colonies to order an extensive investigation into the system of government sugar cultivation in Java. A commission headed by the former inspector of cultivations, G. Umbgrove, was appointed by the governor-general to accomplish that task by a decision of 8 December 1853. After nearly four years of continuous work, which met with resistance from various quarters among the “residents” (district governors) whose cooperation was necessary to carry out the research, they produced a voluminous report with many appendices on 14 September 1857. The commission was disbanded in February 1858. The report and accompanying documentation were then sent to the director of cultivations and later the Council of the Indies for their advice and was submitted to the minister in The Hague by the governor-general in February 1859. In June 1860 he issued new principles for the government’s sugar cultivations and in 1862 the report and appendices were also sent to Parliament as background information for the debate on the ministry’s budget for 1863. Parliament decided to have the report and some of the appendices printed for its own use (only a few copies are extant in the Netherlands). Dissatisfaction with the cultivation system remained and it was gradually abolished. The Agrarian Law of 1870, which made the establishment of private enterprises in the Indies possible, was a decisive moment in the process. A more extensive history of the Commission and its activities in Dutch by archivist H.B.N.B. Adam can be found below on pages 11-18. It also includes lists of the colonial officials of this period, the vagaries of the documents in the ensuing years, including details of what was printed by parliament, and the principles he followed in compiling his inventory.

The collection
Besides the report itself (inventory number 1 below, in clear-hand manuscript), the collection contains a major series of descriptions and statistics (called “monographs” by the Commission) for all the sugar manufactories in 13 residencies on Java. These documents contain a wealth of information, not only on sugar cultivation itself, but also on the social situation of the native population in the sugar-producing areas and form the core of this archive. They were never printed and are available only in manuscript (see inventory numbers 10-197 below). They are arranged by residency and divided by Adam into two sections, the monograph itself (inv. nos. 10-103) and the answers by the residents to the so-called “twelve questions” about the cultivations posed by the governor-general (inv. nos. 104-197).

In addition to these, other appendices cover objections to and complaints about the system ( bezwaren) from the indigenous population, colonial officials and holders of the government sugar-cultivation contracts (Appendix S, inv. nos. 199-211). These are also arranged by residency and are extant in both the printed and manuscript versions (indicated by hs. for handschrift). Other appendices concern the Commission’s conclusions (inv. nos. 212-214), proposals (nos. 215-227, also never printed), and summaries of the situation in each residency (nos. 228-240). Various numbers reproduce circulars, model contracts, models for the research to be carried out, and overviews and tables concerning surface area cultivated, yields and other matters (nos. 2-9, 198, 241). The availability of this valuable, but insufficiently known source material on microfiche will excite broad interest among historians of colonialism and other scholars.