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Edited by Vermeer

The history of China's Southeast coast has unusual features. For many centuries, overseas trade and migration, internal and external warfare, strong religious beliefs and receptiveness to foreign influences characterized this society of fiercely independent traders, fishermen and mountain farmers. The protracted struggle of Cheng Ch'eng- kung and the Southern Ming against the Ch'ing dynasty precipitated Fukien into a crisis, from which many chose to escape by emigration to the Philippines and Taiwan. Recovery was slow. ; The fourteen Western and Chinese contributors to this study focus on internal economic and social developments, overseas and religious change. From the rich Chinese and European source materials, a picture emerges of great regional diversity.
Local interests and values were confronted by the central government's orthodox rule, and Western influences of Jesuits and traders. The Fukienese reaction to them produces fascinating insights into Chinese society, and a truly local history which may qualify our ideas on the Chinese Empire. REA sinologists, social and economic historians.
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Series:

Arjen Vermeer

The military use of outer space has been integral to national security strategies since the space age began, almost 50 years ago. Recent developments in technology and military doctrine have led to states’ being increasingly interested in deploying weapons in space. An assessment of the situation in terms of international law is therefore necessary. Contrary to common belief, the arms control provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty reserve only celestial bodies for peaceful purposes’: it thus limits military activities in the space between them - outer void space – only in respect of prohibiting weapons of mass destruction applying general international law, including the UN Charter. But force application by space weaponry challenges the regime governing the use of force in international relations, jus ad bellum. First, the concept of force needs to be revisited. Second, the differentiated regimes of outer void space and celestial bodies have a significant impact on the lawful exercise of the right of self-defence, including the deployment of spatial missile defence shields. Thus I shall explore a possible jus in bello spatiale. Military activity in space is likely to increase in wars to come. We therefore need a framework for applying the norms of international law in outer space.

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Arjen Vermeer

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Eduard Vermeer

Abstract

The shallow Training Lake in Jiangnan has received much attention in historical records because of the direct involvement of successive dynastic governments in the protection of its seasonal water supply to the Grand Canal. Historians have all praised the periodical efforts to restore the lake's water supply and irrigation functions. However, in view of the high operating costs of the lake and its limited benefits, the various attempts to reclaim land and water for agriculture may have been more rational in terms of economic profit. Visitors' descriptions provide many details on the long-term environmental changes in the lake area. In the 1960s, it was drained and turned into a state farm. Le Lac d'Entraînement peu profond de Jiangnan a retenu l'attention dans les textes historiques parce que les gouvernements dynastiques successifs se sont investis pour assurer alimentation saisonnier du Grand Canal par ses eaux. Tous les historiens ont loué les efforts périodiques visant à lui conserver sa fonction d'alimentation et d'irrigation. Parce que les frais d'entretien du lac étaient élevés et les profits limités, il se peut néanmoins que les travaux entrepris pour convertir le lac en terres agricoles étaient plus rentables. Les descriptions des visiteurs nous fournissent d'abondants détails sur les changements environnementaux à long terme que subit la région du Lac. Dans les années 1960, il fut drainé pour y installer une exploitation agricole d'état.