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The history of China's Southeast coast has unusual features. For many centuries, overseas trade and migration, internal and external warfare, strong religious beliefs and receptiveness to foreign influences characterized this society of fiercely independent traders, fishermen and mountain farmers. The protracted struggle of Cheng Ch'eng- kung and the Southern Ming against the Ch'ing dynasty precipitated Fukien into a crisis, from which many chose to escape by emigration to the Philippines and Taiwan. Recovery was slow. ; The fourteen Western and Chinese contributors to this study focus on internal economic and social developments, overseas and religious change. From the rich Chinese and European source materials, a picture emerges of great regional diversity.
Local interests and values were confronted by the central government's orthodox rule, and Western influences of Jesuits and traders. The Fukienese reaction to them produces fascinating insights into Chinese society, and a truly local history which may qualify our ideas on the Chinese Empire. REA sinologists, social and economic historians.
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Arjen Vermeer

The military use of outer space has been integral to national security strategies since the space age began, almost 50 years ago. Recent developments in technology and military doctrine have led to states’ being increasingly interested in deploying weapons in space. An assessment of the situation in terms of international law is therefore necessary. Contrary to common belief, the arms control provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty reserve only celestial bodies for peaceful purposes’: it thus limits military activities in the space between them - outer void space – only in respect of prohibiting weapons of mass destruction applying general international law, including the UN Charter. But force application by space weaponry challenges the regime governing the use of force in international relations, jus ad bellum. First, the concept of force needs to be revisited. Second, the differentiated regimes of outer void space and celestial bodies have a significant impact on the lawful exercise of the right of self-defence, including the deployment of spatial missile defence shields. Thus I shall explore a possible jus in bello spatiale. Military activity in space is likely to increase in wars to come. We therefore need a framework for applying the norms of international law in outer space.

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Archive of the Fourth Russell Tribunal
On the rights of the Indians of the Americas (Archivo del Cuarto Tribunal Russell: sobre los derechos de los pueblos indígenas de las Américas)

The complete archive of the tribunal held in Rotterdam in November 1980, with detailed evidence, official reports, legal documents and testimony pertaining to 47 cases, with indices for tribes and countries.

Rights of indigenous peoples
The rights of indigenous peoples became the subject of discussion on an international level in the early 1970s. The Fourth Russell Tribunal was one of the major conferences in this framework. The members of the jury met in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in November, 1980, to consider alleged violations of the rights of the Indians in the Americas. Of the 47 cases submitted to the tribunal, 14 were accepted for presentation by witnesses, experts, and documentation. Many other documents and statements were presented as well, including some by indigenous peoples of other continents. More than 100 representatives of indigenous organisations participated in the sessions of the tribunal, coming from as far away as Bolivia, Canada, and New Zealand. Among them were Indian Chiefs, priests, lawyers and anthropologists. On Sunday, November 30th, the jury reached the conclusion that in most of the cases national and international law had been violated. Recommendations were made to governments, international agencies, and religious groups.

Testimony against ethnocidal oppression
The aim of the tribunal was to serve as a forum for testimony against ethnocidal oppression and for the free expression of the will to struggle against those powers that still wish to destroy the authentic character of the oldest cultures of the Americas. That the Tribunal's goal was achieved, is shown by the many references to it in newspaper articles and publications all over the world as well as in reports of United Nations meetings and other international conferences. A complete account of the sessions of the tribunal was published in April, 1981 (a 7-volume report comprising about 1,400 pages), and includes all cases, some annexes to the cases, testimonies, statements, and conclusions.

The Archive
The archive is a unique collection of documents, many of which have never been published. For many of the cases the full evidence is given in annexes including official reports, legal documents, photographs, maps, testimonies, articles, and even books, private letters, and fingerprints. The complete archive of the tribunal has been transferred to the library of the University of Amsterdam.

The printed guide
A detailed guide was prepared in the library of the University of Amsterdam, and covers 2,000 titles and indices pertaining to tribes and countries. This 53-page guide is supplied in printed form with the microfiche collection.
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Learning Theodicy

The Problem of Evil and the Praxis of Religious Education

Paul Vermeer

This volume deals with theodicy as a subject-matter for religious education. In order to enable people to reflect on the theodicy issue, to deal with their religious doubts and perhaps even to cope with suffering, it is very important that religious education is attentative to the problem of evil.
But is it possible to ‘learn’ theodicy? And, if so, what does ‘learning’ mean in this respect? What kind of aims and objectives are desirable and attainable here? These theoretical issues are addressed in the first part of this book.
The second part reports on empirical research conducted on the effects of an experimental theodicy course designed for third grade students of lower level secondary schools. As the research findings indicate, it is indeed possible to ‘learn’ something about theodicy.