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Authors: Wang Bing and Wang Dan

The differences between China and Western countries in human and physical environment has brought about two distinctive models of state. In the Chinese-style state of quasi-consanguinity, in which family and state have a similar structure, imperial power, gentry power, and clan power are the product of common ownership of consanguineous groups. The similarity in the structures of these three kinds of power derives from the fact that they are all restricted by the power of lineage generated from the self-sufficient small farmer economy, and must obey the conventions of ancestors which hold the benefits of the group as supreme. The relationship between these three kinds of power, is definitely not the one that is based on the division of power that is founded on individual private ownership in Western countries, where ‘public power’ and ‘individual private ownership’ are antithetic, but are three aspects of the patriarchal dictatorship that complement each other. Therefore, village rule in China and autonomy in the West are two totally different concepts, and gentry power is also not the ‘authorized power’ from the state.

In: Frontiers of History in China
Authors: Li Hui and Wang Dan

Many counties in Western China have launched 15-year ‘free’ education policies since 2010 to provide the 3-year free early childhood education (ece). To understand the affordability, accessibility, accountability, and sustainability of these policies, we sampled the four counties in Shanxi and Shaanxi province that were the first cohort to implement free ece policies: Yulin, Ningshan, Zuoyun, and Changzhi. A multiple-case online research was conducted and the results indicated that: (1) the ‘free’ education policies are neither ‘all kids free’ nor ‘all fees free’, thus could only partially solve the problem of affordability; (2) the policies did not solve the problems related to school place allocation, which in turn, tended to exacerbate the issue of accessibility and inequality in educational opportunities; (3) no monitoring and quality assurance mechanisms were launched to improve the accountability of kindergartens; and (4) the policies are unlikely to be sustainable as the ece budget entirely relies on the fiscal investment at the county level. Implications of these findings were discussed and some suggestions were made.

In: International Journal of Chinese Education
Authors: Wang Chenggang and Liu Dan

This article mainly introduces the contemporary changes in Chinese family and especially analyses the transformation of family structure and type, family housing conditions, family relationship network, the relationship between husband and wife and parenthood. In addition, it discusses the influence of family changes in the socialization of children. Then it expounds the new transformation in children’s socialization because of family, school, mass media, etc. Finally, it discusses its challenge and reflection to family and pedagogue.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
Authors: Dan Li and Jian Wang

Reading for personal interest and acquiring and using information using various reading processes are important parts of reading literacy that students need to develop in order to progress successfully through their schooling and fully function in the information society. Computer assisted reading instructional activities are assumed useful in improving the reading literacy of students, especially reading processes. However, students in Hong Kong and the US demonstrated a substantial performance gap in reading proficiency. Using the data from Progress in International Reading Literacy (PIRLS) 2011, this study examines whether and to what extent four computer-based reading instructional activities influence students’ performance in reading processes central to reading for interest and acquiring and using information in Hong Kong and the US. It found that computer-based reading activities are associated with students’ literacy performance in different ways in the two places. In particular, the more often Hong Kong students used the computer to read, the lower the reading achievement in all reading processes measured. However, in the US context, using the computer to write is positively associated with students’ reading scores in all reading processes while using software is negatively related to their reading performance in using all the reading processes.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
Authors: Dan He and Nana Wang

Private placement has become an increasingly important method of equity refinancing for regulators, listed companies, and investors. This paper analyzes factors influencing private placement discounts based on the controlling shareholder’s opportunistic behavior and information asymmetry. Our findings indicate that the type of subscriber is a key determinant of the private placement discount, particularly when the subscriber is the controlling shareholder. Asymmetric information between listed companies and investors is another important determinant: The higher the degree of information asymmetry, the greater the private placement discounts.

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China
Authors: Li Hui, Wang Dan, and Ricci W. Fong

This special issue collects six interesting case studies on the so-called 15-year free education in four Chinese societies including Hong Kong, Macau, Mainland China, and Taiwan. The selected works analyze the target education policies based on the theoretical framework of 3A2S—affordability, accessibility, accountability, sustainability, and social justice. Together, they provide a multifaceted account of the merits and limitations of the 15-year free education policies implemented in Greater China. The authors examine the education policies in their respective socioeconomic contexts and aim to suggest new research agenda for early childhood education in these Greater Chinese societies.

In: International Journal of Chinese Education
Authors: DAN Fei, FENG Lu, and WANG Qiong

Persistence is important in developing pre-school children’s ego control. Based on the fact that during the teaching process a teacher’s communication and actions will have a significant influence on young children, which is due to the teachers’ high degree of control over them, four experiments were designed to probe the influences of teachers’ attitudes and oral guidance on the development of persistence among infant students. The results indicate that different attitudes and oral guidance influence the development of persistence of young children differently.

In: Frontiers of Education in China


Principal as the key to school reform has been a frequently discussed topic in the research literature. However, few studies have investigated principals’ own values, views and visions and how these may affect reform in their schools. The study reported in this paper intends to fill this void. It is a joint effort by American and Chinese education scholars to explore and examine the profiles, preparation and perspectives of urban and rural principals in China, based on the conceptual framework and research methodology of the American national Study of the Education of Educators and the earlier comparative study of Chinese, American and Australian school principals. A comprehensive principal survey was administered to several hundred urban and rural school principals in China and interviews were conducted with selected principals. Our study findings reveal both similarities and differences in values, views and visions between urban and rural school principals, and a huge gap in the quality and equality of education between urban and rural schools. Although Chinese principals are in general progressive and liberal in their fundamental beliefs and values, they perceive great difficulties in realizing their visions for ideal schools and recognize major obstacles to reform because of the existing school conditions, the national examination system, and certain policy restrictions on their autonomy and decision-making power in schools. Findings from this study provide special insight to policy makers and education reformers and urge them to create necessary policies, improve conditions, and increase autonomy and decision-making power for principals to manage and effect changes in their schools, especially those in rural and minority areas.

In: Beijing International Review of Education


The Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) is an economically important and rare freshwater aquaculture species in China. The male turtles have better economic benefits than females due to their faster growth speed. In order to explore the mechanism of sex differentiation and determination of P. sinensis, transcriptome analysis was carried out using embryo samples from the sex determination, sex differentiation and shelling stages, respectively. The gender types of embryos were identified by genotyping and histological analysis. In all, 277,230 and 273,859 genes were identified from embryos of male and female turtles, respectively. Cluster analysis of gene expression patterns exhibited trends for all differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which can be classified into three subclusters. In the sex determination, sex differentiation, and shelling stages 975, 43, and 300 DEGs, respectively, were identified by comparing the male and female groups. KEGG analysis was used to explore the function of the DEGs. Fgf9, foxl2, mex3b, sox7,tgfβ-3, wnt4, wnt7a, and wt1 were upregulated in ovary development stages and chfr, ampk, aldh2, dao, glt1d1, hvcn1, psmd9, srsf9 and ubc were upregulated in testis development stages, indicating that these genes play important roles in the sex development of P. sinensis. The results of this study provide preliminary insights into the sex determination and differentiation of Chinese soft-shelled turtles.

In: Animal Biology