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The argument given by strong representationalists about phenomenal consciousness usually has two steps. The first is to identify all phenomenal consciousness with representation. The second is to identify all phenomenal aspects of phenomenal consciousness with certain representational content. Pain is often thought to be a counterexample to representationalism. However, current objections from this perspective mostly focus on the second step and try to show that pains have some special qualities that representational content cannot explain. This paper objects to representationalism with regard to pain (that pain is not representation) by way of a focus on the first step. First, it shows that by borrowing the notion of “representation” from the causal co-variation theory of representation, representationalists are not able to demonstrate that pain is representation. Second, by laying out some well-accepted criteria for what counts as representation, it argues that pains do not satisfy them. Thus, pain is not representation.

In: Frontiers of Philosophy in China
In: Crustaceana
Authors: and

During the 1940s, the Chinese Communist revolutionary bases in North China experienced a sharp increase in divorces in which wives cast off their husbands. This was due in great part to the promulgation of a series of marriage regulations and to the Party’s extensive mobilization of women. Examining both the public and private domains in terms of changes affecting tradition, revolution, and gender, the authors investigate the ways that marriage transformation intertwined with national wars, political changes, and gender liberation. Our analysis reveals that marriage institutions experienced a severe crisis as traditional needs and new longings, such as marriage freedom, wartime needs, and the stability of rural traditions, family, and social structures, intersected. The Chinese Communist regime carried out successive adjustments in marriage policies as they affected women. With Party support, the paradigm of “wives divorcing husbands” became de facto marriage policy in order to adapt to resolve conflicts between emotions and the law and to meet the requirements of rural society and military stability. Seeking to shake off the traditional “oppression–liberation” paradigm, the research in the present article tries to combine the study of female existences, marriage, and the relevant emotions with rural traditions and the historical background of wartime China, so as to explain the changes in women’s marital status and the nature and significance of their so-called liberation in wartime revolutionary bases in North China.

In: Frontiers of History in China
Authors: , , and

Dynamic capabilities are regarded as a strategic premise to creating, maintaining and upgrading sustainable competitiveness. Considering organizational learning as a mediator variable, this study tests the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and dynamic capabilities, and identifies paths to develop dynamic capabilities and the components of these capabilities. More specifically, the factor analysis method was employed to verify that dynamic capabilities are comprised of four dimensions, i.e. environmental sensing capabilities, change and renewal capabilities, technological and organizational flexibility capabilities. It was found that dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation have a significantly positive effect on dynamic capabilities to different extents, while organizational learning, which has significantly positive effect on dynamic capabilities, plays a partial mediating role between the two. These findings indicate that companies can build dynamic capabilities through different levels of organizational learning in the context of innovative and proactive atmosphere.

In: Frontiers of Literary Studies in China
Volume Editors: , , and
This volume is devoted to the memory of the eminent carcinologist Professor Ruiyu Liu (1922-2012) of the Institute of Oceanology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China. Since 1949, Professor Liu had devoted his life to studying taxonomy, systematics, ecology, zoogeography and aquaculture and published a total of more than 210 papers and monographs. He described two new genera, fifty-two new species and one new subspecies, including not only crustaceans but also cnidarians, polychaetes and molluscs. In this volume forty of his friends and colleagues put together sixteen papers to honour Professor Liu, and named after him three new genera and eleven new species.
First published as a Special Issue of Crustaceana 93(11-12): 1233-1546.
In: Studies on the Taxonomy of Crustaceans


The third-stage dispersal juvenile (JIII) is the stage for survival and dispersal in the winter of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Through investigations at different temperatures, we found two kinds of growth-arrested development, including the adult longevity extension and JIII formation induced by low temperature. They showed similar characters: densely packed lipid droplets and extended longevity. We considered that there were four stages in the formation of growth-arrested stages: induction, growth-arrested pathway, growth-arrested development and cold-tolerance duration. Moreover, at 4°C there were significant changes in secondary metabolites, which may be related to signal communication and metabolism associated with the formation of growth-arrested stages. The results suggested that low temperature was necessary for the dispersal of pine wood nematode and influenced distribution and intensity of pine wilt.

In: Nematology

The effects of different concentrations of eleven different metals (aluminum chloride, chromium nitrate and potassium dichromate, lead nitrate, copper sulfate, manganous sulfate, cobaltous nitrate, zinc sulfate, magnesium sulfate, nickel sulfate, cadmium chloride, and mercuric chloride) on cell division and nucleoli in root tip cells of Allium cepa were studied. The results showed that the metal ions could, in varying degrees, cause chromosome, nucleus, and nucleolus irregularities, including c-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, irregularly shaped nuclei, micronuclei, irregularly shaped nucleoli, some silver-stained material scattered in the nucleus, the weakening of silver-staining reaction at the periphery of the nucleolus, and the release of nucleolar material from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. The Allium test may be useful for the rapid screening of chemicals involved in environmental problems.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences