In the Sophist, Plato offers seven definitions of a sophist. In this paper I will consider the relationship between these definitions, and examine how the first six definitions contribute to the final definition, and how the final definition, in turn, incorporates elements of the first six. Through this examination, we can also have a better grasp of Plato’s method of division, and Plato’s aporetic approach to philosophy.


For Aristotle creating a virtuous character means habituating a stable emotional state or disposition (hexis), which enables the agent to feel and act rightly, and to have the intellectual virtue prudence (phronēsis) complete this habituation. But because feeling or emotion (pathos) is a passive state, it is not clear in what way we can make ourselves be affected correctly. This paper tries to solve this apparent difficulty by emphasizing the cognitive power of emotion. It also examines the role of prudence in the acquisition of ethical virtue, supporting an anti-intellectualist understanding of practical motivation.

WEI Shuguang and LIU Xianjun

This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983–1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a “Three Levels/Four Parameters” analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept of institutions from W. Richard Scott (2007). We use this framework to analyze management cooperation between UT and HUST. Qualitative data is collected through open-ended interviews with participants of the CCMEP and from a review of historical literature. Through this analysis, we find that mutuality in the CCMEP was gradually established. During this process, the national macro-level institutional framework, the interactive consultations between UT and HUST, and the increased understanding of HUST’s needs and culture constitute the three levels of institutionalized mutuality in the CCMEP. The UT project directors’ understanding about Chinese culture, values, and beliefs was the key to the success of the CCMEP. Among the four parameters of mutuality, autonomy is the core parameter.

CHEN Jiyong and LIU Wei

This article makes an empirical study on the magnifying effect produced by foreign direct investment (hereafter called as FDI) on the US-China trade deficit through co-integration analysis and error-correction modeling. By combining the empirical results, we give out our own opinion that the expansion of the US-China trade deficit is supposed to partly ascribe to the fact that processed industry is the main path of FDI and to Counter sales and trade diversion which are produced by exports on reproduced production by foreign enterprises in China. On the above-mentioned basis, this article concludes that in order to reduce the US-China trade deficit effectively, we are supposed to expand our domestic demand, perfect our inviting-investment policies, implement FDI in China and quicken up the “going out” of our enterprises.

CHEN Jiyong, LIU Wei and HU Yi

Since the 1990s, China has exhibited growth in both foreign trade and the economy. Promoting environmental protection and sustainable economic growth are main concerns in the academic profession in the country. This paper makes an empirical analysis of trade and environmental pollution, and discusses the inherent relationship between foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth. In addition, this paper makes several policy suggestions with a view to adjusting trade structure, enforcing environmental protection and promoting sustainable economic growth in China.

Wei Wang, Yuchuan Liu, Zhenyu Liao and Jun Liu

New-entry employees expect to be involved rather than to be marginalized. This paper proposes a model to examine the process through which employees can be exempt from marginalization in their organization as a “political arena.” We argue that an employee, in order not to be marginalized, would like to perform high-quality in-role and extra-role behaviors and also develop good guanxi with his/her immediate supervisor. Moreover, the effects of employee efforts and guanxi on workplace marginalization are moderated by the organization political climate. Two studies were performed to examine the hypothesized model. The pilot study employed a sample of civil servants to develop and validate the measurement of workplace marginalization. The main study collected matched data from 343 employees, 662 of their colleagues, and 343 immediate supervisors. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analysis show that employee job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and supervisor-subordinate guanxi are negatively related to workplace marginalization. In addition, the negative relationship between guanxi and workplace marginalization is stronger in firms with less organizational politics than those with intensive politics.

Jiyong Chen, Yangyi Sheng, Wei Liu and Yibo Zhang

This article has constructed a framework to analyze the relationship between national innovation investments, international knowledge spillover due to FDI and regional technological progress. We use the panel data sample in 1992–2006 from China’s 29 provinces (municipalities or autonomous regions) to test the impact of China’s regional R&D investments, international knowledge spillovers of FDI on its regional technological progress. It reveals that the local investments in science and technology are the most important factors to promote technological progress; for the structure and quality of China’s current FDI, the knowledge spillover effects from FDI, especially through the FDI enterprises’ manufacturing activities, are not obvious; the local gains in its technology development from FDI depends on its economic and technological level. Based on the above conclusions we give the corresponding policy recommendations for China’s FDI policy and regional economic development.

Donghua Liu, Wusheng Jiang, Wei Wang and Lin Zhai

The effects of different concentrations of eleven different metals (aluminum chloride, chromium nitrate and potassium dichromate, lead nitrate, copper sulfate, manganous sulfate, cobaltous nitrate, zinc sulfate, magnesium sulfate, nickel sulfate, cadmium chloride, and mercuric chloride) on cell division and nucleoli in root tip cells of Allium cepa were studied. The results showed that the metal ions could, in varying degrees, cause chromosome, nucleus, and nucleolus irregularities, including c-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, irregularly shaped nuclei, micronuclei, irregularly shaped nucleoli, some silver-stained material scattered in the nucleus, the weakening of silver-staining reaction at the periphery of the nucleolus, and the release of nucleolar material from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. The Allium test may be useful for the rapid screening of chemicals involved in environmental problems.

Ching-Long Lin, Wei-Cheng Liu and Ju-Shey Ho


Two species of Chondracanthidae (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida) parasitic on sandperches of the genus Parapercis Bleeker, 1863 from Taiwan are reported. They are ectoparasites attaching to the host's gill filaments. The species of parasites and their hosts are: Prochondracanthopsis quadricornutus Shiino, 1960 on Parapercis sexfasciata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843), P. multifasciata Döderlein, 1884, and an unidentified species of Parapercis; and Parapercicola formosana n. gen., n. sp. on P. multifasciata. It is proposed that Humphreysia hoi Do & Kasahara, 1982 found on P. sexfasciata from Japan is to be synonymized with P. quadricornutus. The outstanding characteristics of P. formosana are possession of (1) a body in the female with distinct tagmatization of head, neck (long), and trunk (without outgrowths); (2) the antenna in both sexes with atrophied tip (accessory antennule); and (3) biramous but reduced legs 1 and 2 in the female.

Ju-Shey Ho, Wei-Cheng Liu and Ching-Long Lin