This chapter analyses immigrant and ethnic-minority writing as an international phenomenon. It first discusses the marginalisation of this writing in nationalised literatures. Subsequently, it explains how this marginalisation was overcome and how immigrant and ethnic-minority writing came to be regarded as a vanguard of cultural change. This process began in the 1960s in Anglophone contexts and, over the last 50 years, has reached first the larger, then the smaller European literatures, as well as those of Brazil and Japan. The chapter regards this process as having been set off by the same trigger in all the national contexts discussed here – the new ideology of equality of all peoples and races established after World War II. Moreover, it shows that the recognition of this literature was achieved faster in those contexts where equal rights for all people have become inscribed into the legal framework and the national imaginary.
This article will show that Anne Duden’s literary project to express an ‚impossible possibility of being’ clashes with contemporary translation practice. In the light of these clashes I attempt to reread Anne Duden’s Übergang. Starting with an introductory exploration of these premises this article will turn to a critical discussion of the different marketing strategies used for the English and the French publication. Finally I compare and contrast the two translations of the text ‘Herz und Mund’ concluding that Anne Duden’s writing of otherness calls for a new understanding of translation.
Das erste Kapitel des Schreibens beginnt […] zwischen grellstem Licht und tiefster Dunkelheit. Die Geschichte der Worte setzt ein in der Verlorenheit, sie setzt auf das Verlorene. Auf das Wissen, daß nichts mehr zu gewinnen ist, aber alles dableibt, versteckt in Worten, in Bildern, die vor allem die einstigen Gefühle, die Empfindungen, die Blicke, die Potenzen der Welt aufbewahren bis zum Tag ihrer Übersetzung, Übersetzung in die Auferstehung, in den Text, aber auch die Bitternis, die Empörung, die Trauer und Wut. Das erste Kapitel des Schreibens beginnt am und beim Übergang. (Z 32, Hervorhebung: WS)
In an analysis of the different target cultural norms and conventions underlying the selection and translation of Monika Maron’s prose into English and French I reread her novels Flugasche and Die Überläuferin. Comparing the selection of texts translated into these two languages as well as the marketing strategies used for the respective publications of Die Überläuferin the first section outlines the different interests in Maron in the target cultures. In the second chapter I further explore these interests in a detailed analysis of the translations themselves concluding that they maintain rather than bridge the gap.
Literary actors in Western countries have long ignored authors who came as immigrants or are members of ethnic minorities. This article discusses the upscaling of these authors in the West since the 1960s as an international process related to other processes of globalisation, namely the recognition of non-Western writers and the emergence of transnational literary fields. Moreover, it compares the effects of this process in the British and German literary fields. In Britain, the upscaling of immigrants is intertwined with the recognition of post-colonial writing in English worldwide as well as with the emergence of a transnational literary field in English. In Germany, by contrast, there were no direct links between the growing recognition of peripheralized authors, the growing connectivity between several literary fields operating in German, and the upscaling of immigrants. This explains why it took immigrants so much longer to gain recognition in Germany than it did in Britain.