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Author: Wietse De Boer


This contribution critiques the current practice of studying the early modern Catholic clergy within the parameters of confessionalization and professionalization theories. Measuring the features of the early modern priest with the standards of the institutional reforms to which he was subjected, is an inevitably reductive operation. Once we take the perspective of the priest and study his career from a variety of angles (including family, education, economic opportunities, and career choices), his cultural profile may prove to be the far more complex outcome of often competing forces. Personal memoirs, such as the diary of Girolamo Magni, parish priest of Popiglio (Pistoia), arc especially helpful for the study of priests' careers and identity.

In: Nederlands Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis / Dutch Review of Church History
In: A New History of Penance
In: Meditatio – Refashioning the Self
In: Meditatio – Refashioning the Self
In: Jesuit Image Theory
In: Ut pictura amor
In: Religion and the Senses in Early Modern Europe
Catholic Debates at the Time of Trent. With an Edition and Translation of Key Documents
Author: Wietse de Boer
The Catholic Church answered Reformation-era contestations of the cult of images in a famous decree of the Council of Trent (1563). Art in Dispute revisits this response by focusing on its antecedents rather than its consequences. The mid-sixteenth century saw, besides new scholarship on Byzantine doctrines, heated debates about neo-scholastic interpretations. Disagreement, suppressed at Trent but re-emerging soon afterwards, centered on the question whether religious images were solely signs referring to holy subjects or also sacred objects in their own right. It was a debate with major implications for art theory and devotional practice.

The volume contains editions and translations of texts by Martín Pérez de Ayala, Matthieu Ory, Jean Calvin, Ambrogio Catarino Politi, and Iacopo Nacchianti, along with a previously unknown draft of the Tridentine decree.