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  • Author or Editor: Wolfgang Treitler x
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Jesus wird als messianischer Sohn Josefs interpretiert, der an der römischen Macht scheiterte und dadurch eine einmalige Bedeutung in einem unabschließbaren messianischen Prozess annimmt. Das Motiv des messianischen Sohnes Josefs, das die jüdische Überlieferung kennt, deutet den Messias als einen gesandten Menschen, der von der imperialen Gewalt bezwungen und getötet wird. Es vermeidet den hohen Anspruch des herrlichen messianischen Sohnes Davids, der Vollendung gebracht hätte – diese blieb nach Jesus aus –, sowie die im Heidenchristentum entstandene Gott-Mensch-Idee, die einen Widerspruch zu allen Messiasvorstellungen bildet und den Monotheismus des Judentums auflöst. Es bindet jedoch die christlichen Gemeinschaften grundsätzlich an die Basisgeltungen des Judentums. Mit dieser Arbeit über Jesus, Josefs Sohn, wird ein neuer, heute unbekannter Weg angebahnt, der sich auf judenchristliche Motive beziehen kann und diese zeitgerecht zu vermitteln versucht.

Abstract

Christian anti-Judaism is anything but a random lapse. It has been generated as an integral part of early Christian teaching ever since the 2nd cent. by Christian scholars and Church Fathers who wanted to prove both, Christ as God and, therefore, the end of. The decisive presupposition was to strip Christ of his Jewishness and turn him against his own people. The Council of Nicaea in 325 CE declared a confession of faith imposed on all so-called orthodox Christian communities in a dogmatic way and featuring a complete denial of Christ’s connection to Judaism during all his lifetime. In this way, Judaism and Jews were dogmatically extinguished. Christian anti-Judaism has become an inevitable part of Christian dogmatics. Therefore, it is inconsistent to maintain Christological dogmatics and at the same assure Jewish communities that the Catholic church has overcome its anti-Jewish attitude that is still based on dogmatics, teaching, and tradition.

In: Interreligiöser Dialog

Abstract

In the year 325 CE, Emperor Constantine the Great called an assembly of Christian hierarchs to Nicaea to decide on a confession text that he had launched to create a united Christianity ensuring the unity of the Empire. Before that, two opposing groups fought against each other, and they even used violence and sometimes terror: the group around bishop Alexander of Alexandria and his secretary Athanasius the Great on the one hand and groups around Arius, priest in Alexandria, on the other. In the end, the Creed of Nicaea was accepted by the assembly and in fact annihilated Jesus as a Messiah by declaring him God and man, a kind of „hybrid“ (D. Boyarin). This was the final step to exclude Jewish-Christian communities from Christianity and to identify heretics more and more as Jewish, while the Jewish communities relied on an anti-dogmatic principle of an ongoing discourse.

In: Jesus, Josefs Sohn

Abstract

Christianity sees itself as a community believing in the Messiah and identifying him as Jesus of Nazareth. Right from the beginning, the early communities had to cope with the fact that Jesus was not only crucified by the Romans but did not alter the political conditions of Judea so as to bring peace to the land and the world. That is, why Paul invented the idea of a second coming of Christ in order to cope with his present days. The Roman-Jewish war in the years 66-70 CE and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem raised a new problem that stood against all messianic expectations. The messianic communities tried their best to integrate even this anti-Messianic fact. And yet, in the run of the writings of the New Testament, the fire of the messianic faith of the early Jewish-Christian communities slowly began to die out.

In: Jesus, Josefs Sohn

Abstract

After the Roman-Jewish war, the ongoing Roman oppression of groups being identified as Jewish remained a threat to Judaeo-Christian communities in the 1st century. The book of Revelation addressed different communities in Minor Asia that severely suffered from the Romans, and some of them were obviously about to give in and turn away from their Messianic hopes and faith. Facing those struggles, the book of Revelation evolved an apocalyptic confrontation between the Roman Emperor and the Messiah who was neither an Emperor nor a God. He was sent by God to redeem his suffering communities. As a document of Messianic hope, the book of Revelation witnessed to an ongoing struggle and developed an imminent expectation by calling on the Messiah to come soon. This book and its plea are outstanding in the New Testament. It was followed by a Messianic resignation of the late writings of the New Testament.

In: Jesus, Josefs Sohn

Abstract

In the decades after the Council of Nicaea, interpretations of Christ evolved that did not only affirm the annihilation of Christ’s Jewishness and Messiahship, but in fact also of his being a man. Others resisted. As in the time of the Council of Nicaea, again two groups opposed each other: one group that stood by Cyrill, bishop of Alexandria and tightening the Creed of Nicaea by Monophysite tendencies, and another group supporting Nestorios, bishop of Constantinople pointing to the mankind of Christ. The conflict escalated and led to an intervention by the bishop of Rome, Leo the Great. He affirmed that Christ was God and man, but that it would be definitively impossible to realize how the relationship between God and man worked. Leo revised Monophysite interpretations of the Creed of Nicaea, but he, too, did no longer get it that Christ, the Messiah, had perished by the dogmatic Christianity had set up.

In: Jesus, Josefs Sohn

Abstract

Justin the Martyr and Melito of Sardes were decisive for the future success of Gentile Christianity over the Judaeo-Christian communities, at least as far as Christology was concerned. Justin did not only hellenize Christ, moreover, he paganized Christ according to the religious images of the Roman Empire. At the same time, he explicitly reinforced the emperor’s measures against the Jewish communities and declared that they were according even to the Israel’s prophets announcing God’s upcoming punishment. It was Melito of Sardes who pointed to this punishment in his Sermon on Passover. In this sermon he declared that Israel had killed God and, therefore, become subject to the strongest retaliation by God who crushed Israel down in every respect. The so-called deicide uttered for the first time in the sermon implicated the idea that Jesus was God himself.

In: Jesus, Josefs Sohn

Abstract

The confession of Christ as Godman led to an alteration of the monotheistic basis Jewish communities, the Jesus movement and Jewish-Christian communities shared. On the one hand, Christian teaching stated that God had come ultimately close to mankind in Jesus Christ because he was God and man in unity, on the other hand it rejected the Jewish monotheism as abstract and does this until today. And yet, Christian theologians wanted to prove that Trinitarian theology that was developed because of the Creed of Nicaea was still a kind of monotheistic theology. But Trinitarian theology is neither according to Jesus, his early followers and the Jewish-Christian communities nor is it possible to keep the Biblical monotheism of the „Shma Israel“ by Trinitarian concepts. So, Trinitarian theology shows that the concept of the Creed of Nicaea could not keep Jesus in a way the Jewish writers of the New Testament witnessed to.

In: Jesus, Josefs Sohn

Abstract

In a short story of the Talmudic tractate Sukka 52a it is told that the „Messiah, the son of Joseph, will be killed.“ This is the only story binding together a messianic figure and his being killed by the enemy. The Gospel of Matthew created a genealogy of Jesus whose father was called Josef. This is less of historical than of literary significance. It enables to read the story of Matthew for a subtext referring to the Egyptian Joseph, the son of Jacob, by blending both stories to interpret Jesus as messianic son of Joseph killed by the Romans and leaving the world essentially unchanged, but opening a messianic process extending to all people who consider themselves Christians, i.e., messianic people. In this perspective, Jesus was the beginning of an ongoing messianic process, but not its end; it is solely based in Judaism.

In: Jesus, Josefs Sohn

Abstract

Jesus, the messianic son of Joseph, can be interpreted as the gate of Israel’s eternal covenant open to those who are connected to the covenant through the killed messiah. Therefore, Christianity that replaced and outdated Judaism especially by dogmatic Christology and its dogmatic and practical consequences, is an immediate self-contradiction, particularly by substituting Shabbat with Sunday, the ban of images with declaring Jesus to be God, and Torah observance by Greek-Roman virtues and Roman law. Jesus, the messianic son of Joseph, is the very link between contemporary Judaism and its eternal covenant and Christian communities ready to return and reform themselves as a real messianic community. At the very heart of it, one can find the mystery of Shabbat, the day of celebrating the creator who saved the killed messiah of Nazareth, too. For in the end, the messianic son of Josef belongs to God’s Shabbat.

In: Jesus, Josefs Sohn