Ektaphelenchus taiwanensis sp. n. is described and figured. The new species was isolated from pine packaging wood from Taiwan and inspected in Ningbo harbour, China, in 2009. Ektaphelenchus taiwanensis sp. n. is characterised by the lip region lacking a clear constriction separating it from the body contour, stylet relatively short (12-17 μm) and without basal knobs, and presence of three lines in the lateral field. The female post-uterine sac is less than a body diam. long, the rectum and anus are absent and the tail is conoid with a sharply pointed terminus. The male tail is conoid and has a hair-like mucron (0.5-2.5 μm), the spicules are mitten-shaped, 12.5-14.4 μm long (chord) and are smoothly curved with a prominent rounded condylus, prominent pointed rostrum, and broadly rounded distal end. There are three pairs of subventral caudal papillae. Ektaphelenchus taiwanensis sp. n. is similar to E. betulae, E. josephi, E. joyceae, E. prolobos, E. propora and E. tuerkorum from which it can be separated by a combination of various morphometric and morphological characters. The D2D3 LSU and partial SSU region sequences were analysed and aligned using ClustalW implemented in MEGA version 4.0. Phylogenetic trees were generated with the Neighbour Joining (NJ) method using the Tajima-Nei distance option. The feeding habit of the new species is briefly discussed.
Bursaphelenchus koreanus sp. n., isolated in Ningbo, P.R. China, from packaging wood made from Pinus sp. imported from South Korea, is described. It is characterised by a slim body (a = 28-35), lateral field with four lines, excretory pore located at level of, or slightly posterior to, median bulb, vulva at 75% of total body length, presence of a distinct vulval flap in lateral view, post-uterine branch extending for ca two-thirds of vulva-anus distance, female tail conical and ventrally bent with slightly pointed, irregular or roughened terminus (c′ = 4.1), spicules large and arcuate (27-34 μm) with pointed rostrum, cucullus visible but sometimes reduced to a small blunt extension. The new species belongs to the xylophilus group and is most similar to B. luxuriosae and B. paraluxuriosae. It is distinguished from other Bursaphelenchus species by morphology, ITS-RFLP patterns and sequencing results.
Ruehmaphelenchus taedae n. sp., isolated from Loblolly pine logs (Pinus taedae L.) from the USA, is described and figured. It is characterised by a relatively slim body (a = 42 and 43 for males and females, respectively), three lines in the lateral field, male spicules relatively small (12-18 μm) with high and dorsally bent condylus and weakly developed rostrum, bursal flap absent, short tail possessing a long terminal spike ending in a bluntly rounded tip and 8.7-13.3 μm long, vulva positioned at ca 83% of body length, vulval flap absent, vulval lips slightly protruding, post-vulval uterine branch extending for less than half of vulva to anus distance, and female tail conoid, ca 3-4 anal body diam. long, with 13.7-18.5 μm terminal projection. The new species can be separated from all other species of the genus by the male tail possessing a long terminal spike and the more anterior excretory pore. Detailed phylogenetic analysis based on 28S D2-D3 region sequences confirmed the status of this nematode as a new species.
Bursaphelenchus yuyaoensis n. sp. is described and figured from dying Pinus massoniana in Yuyao, China. The new species clearly belongs to the hofmanni group. It is characterised by relatively slim body (a = 43.7 and 36.2 for males and females, respectively), three lines in the lateral field, spicules relatively small (11.4-14.7 μm), mitten-shaped with the posterior third of the dorsal limb distinctly curved, condylus round and slightly dorsally bent, rostrum well developed with more or less rounded terminus, distal ends of spicules not forming a clear cucullus, male tail with a mucron-like process, female tail slightly ventrally bent with a bluntly rounded terminus, vulval lip not forming a vulval flap and post-uterine sac extending for about half the vulva-anus distance. The separate species status is supported by ITS-RFLP patterns and molecular phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1/2 sequences, which revealed that B. yuyaoensis n. sp. is close to B. parvispicularis and B. paraparvispicularis.
Laimaphelenchus spiflatus n. sp. isolated from declining Chinese pine, Pinus tabuliformis, is described and illustrated. The new species can be characterised by its relatively long body size of 1150 ± 108 (976-1437) μm for females and 1092 ± 78.6 (905-1235) μm for males, lateral field with four lines, females with a long vulval flap, and tail conoid, slightly ventrally curved and ending in a stalk having 8-12 projections when observed with SEM. Males are common, with 27.3 (23.4-28.8) μm long spicules having blunt (not well-developed) condylus and rostrum and truncate simple distal tip, and four caudal papillae. By having a vulval flap, four lateral lines and tail end with a stalk (without four tubercles), the new species comes close to L. preissii, L. simlaensis, and L. unituberculus, but can be differentiated from them by morphological characters and morphometric data. In phylogenetic analyses using near full length 18S and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA, Laimaphelenchus spiflatus n. sp. appeared as an independent lineage separated from the other Laimaphelenchus spp. that are currently sequenced for their aforementioned genomic regions.
Ektaphelenchus ibericus n. sp. is described and figured. The new species was isolated from pine packaging wood from Spain that was inspected in Ningbo harbour, China, in 2011. Ektaphelenchus ibericus n. sp. is characterised by lip region without clear constriction, relatively short stylet (11-15 μm) lacking basal knobs, and four lateral lines. The female post-uterine sac is less than one body diam. long, rectum and anus are absent, and the tail is conoid with a sharply pointed terminus. Males are rare and have a conoid tail with a sharply pointed terminus, spicules mitten-shaped, 12.8 μm long (chord) and smoothly curved with a high and bluntly rounded condylus and bluntly pointed rostrum, distal end broadly rounded, and three pairs of ventral caudal papillae present. The separate species status is also supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis based on partial SSU, ITS1/2 and partial LSU sequences.
Bursaphelenchus posterovulvus sp. n., isolated in Ningbo, P.R. China, from non-coniferous packaging wood from Singapore is described. It is characterised by a slim body (a = 24-43), lip region strongly offset, stylet with prominent and strongly sclerotised basal swellings, lateral field with four lines, excretory pore located at level of median bulb, hemizonid 30-40 μm posterior to excretory pore, vulva at 82-86% of total body length, post-uterine branch extending for ca two-thirds of vulva-anus distance, female tail conical and short (c′ = 2.3-3.0) with a pointed terminus, spicules short (11-16 μm) and slightly arcuate, rostrum blunt and relatively short, dorsal and ventral limbs conspicuous and their distal ends separated, three pairs of ventro-sublateral papillae and a single precloacal papilla. The new species is distinguished from other Bursaphelenchus species by morphology, ITS-RFLP patterns and phylogenetic analyses.