The reversal of the United States’ position on economic globalization has created conditions for Chinese leadership of globalization, and at the same time it has greatly elevated the costs to China for that leadership. As a necessary course to a peaceful rise, China’s leadership of globalization does not require China to “fill the gap” left by the United States, nor does it require China to duplicate the United States’ pattern of acting as overlord. Since the many drawbacks existing in the original globalization were inevitably connected to the United States’ hegemonic pattern, Chinese-led globalization must be of a new type that does not duplicate the existing model. Considering the goals of the new globalization and the costs of leading it, China’s inevitable choice will be to lead globalization jointly with other major powers.
Understanding a proposition for an intelligent agent is an important epistemic concept. We first discuss intuitively general logic characteristics of understanding, and give a language and a semantics containing understanding as a modal operator. Secondly, we develop the system LU for the operator, give some results of its proof theory, and then we prove the frame soundness and frame completeness of LU.
In this paper, we argue that national culture is important in interpreting the differences of entrepreneurial activities between countries. Furthermore, national wealth plays a moderating role between national culture and entrepreneurial activities. Datasets from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) study were analyzed. We find that there are interaction effects between GDP, a proxy for national wealth, and several cultural dimensions on entrepreneurial activities. More traditional cultural variables (in-group collectivism, humane orientation, and power distance) enhance early-stage and established entrepreneurship in low- and medium-GDP countries, but hinder early-stage and established entrepreneurship in high-GDP countries. More modernistic cultural variables (performance orientation, future orientation, and uncertainty avoidance) promote high-growth and high-innovation entrepreneurship in some situations, especially in high-GDP countries. Implications and limitations are discussed.