Recent scholarship suggests the Flood motif and its literary representations may have emerged and developed relatively late in Sumerian literary traditions. To investigate how the Flood motif gained its entry in the literary traditions, the current study traces the dissemination of the temporal expression eĝir a-ma-ru ba-ur3-ra-ta “After the Flood had swept over . . .” and its variants in Sumerian mythological and chronographic sources during the Old Babylonian period. This study seeks to demonstrate that when the Flood motif first emerged explicitly in Sumerian literary traditions it manifested as an innovative stylistic and temporal device for introducing the primeval time of origins as well as for marking the (re-)beginning of time. Coming to grips with this initial stage of development of the Flood motif will shed important light on some key conceptual and literary processes through which the Flood motif and its mythological and chronographic representations formed and evolved during the Old Babylonian period.
Pursuant to the ‘liberal nationalist’ account, citizenship is simultaneously exclusive and inclusive. Its particularistic aspect functions as a fence that keeps non-members out while its universalistic element acts as the glue that binds all members. In theory, any tension between these seemingly competing attributes is reconcilable as they are assigned to distinct spatial domains, the former to citizenship’s exterior and the latter interior. Thus, often drawing comparison to an egg, citizenship is said to consist of a hard shell and a soft centre. In this chapter, I rely on a historical review of international migrants’ shifting healthcare entitlement in Canada as a lens for contesting this liberal nationalist portrayal of citizenship. I observe that, on its edges, the exclusionary propensity of Canadian citizenship is sometimes reined in by inclusionary norms to enable the entry of even migrants commonly characterised as undesirable because of their suspected dependence on public healthcare. Conversely, in Canadian citizenship’s interior, complete realisation of universal healthcare has been thwarted by particularistic welfare controls that query foreign residents’ labour market contributions and the genuineness of their humanitarian needs. As such, contrary to the proverbial egg, citizenship is actually not as hard on the outside or as soft on the inside.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of decreasing N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by five meat-borne bacteria species and to elucidate the mechanism in MRS broth. Lactobacillus pentosus was found to be the most effective in decreasing NDMA. It could not be reduced by either extracellular metabolites or intracellular extracts of L. pentosus (P>0.05), and the proteins from the cell debris were found to be responsible for the decrease. The substances were considered as surface layer proteins which locate on the cell wall. It provided a potential way for decreasing NDMA in production of fermented meat products.