Detecting Chinese Modernities: Rupture and Continuity in Modern Chinese Detective Fiction (1896–1949), Yan Wei historicizes the two stages in the development of Chinese detective fiction and discusses the rupture and continuity in the cultural transactions, mediation, and appropriation that occurred when the genre of detective fiction traveled to China during the first half of the twentieth century. Wei identifies two divergent, or even opposite strategies for appropriating Western detective fiction during the late Qing and the Republican periods. She further argues that these two periods in the domestication of detective fiction were also connected by shared emotions. Both periods expressed ambivalent and sometimes contradictory views regarding Chinese tradition and Western modernity.
Chinese Perspectives on Human Rights and Good Governance series reviews various aspects of human rights and good governance in China, including international human rights standards, specific substantive rights protection and rule of law, as well as constitutionalism, especially in the context of contemporary China. Its aim is to stimulate discussion on these and related topics, with a focus on international standards whenever these are applicable and relevant to China.
In this first volume in the series, the contributors adopt different disciplinary approaches to look at China both in the context of its internal constraints and as a global player in the overall development of human rights. Where is China headed in the near future? Does Chinese culture stand in contradiction to human rights? Is the rule of law alien to Chinese society? Can China move ahead without political reforms? In this thought-provoking volume, leading Chinese and Western scholars offer analysis of these issues, also with reference to Chinese history and contemporary culture.
Polyploidy induction is an important method for the innovation of germplasm resources because polyploid plants have superior characteristics to diploid ones. In this paper, oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa) tetraploids were induced by treating the apical meristem of seedlings with oryzalin, amiprophos-methyl (APM) and colchicine. The results showed that each of these three antimicrotubule agents could induce the formation of tetraploid oriental melon, but oryzalin and APM showed higher efficiencies of tetraploid induction. The efficiencies of tetraploid induction were highest (14.44%) when treated with 80 µmol·L−1 APM for 6 days. Stomata characteristics were used to screen the treated plants for changes in ploid levels preliminarily. Subsequently, the changes in ploid levels were further confirmed by flow-cytometric analysis and chromosome counts of root tip cells. The comparison between diploids and tetraploids in fruit characteristics, reproductive characteristics, and postharvest storage qualities showed that the fruit of tetraploids had thicker flesh, higher total soluble solid (TSS) content and lower fruit shape index than diploids. The pollen grains of tetraploids were larger but showed lower vitality. In addition, a higher percentage of embryo-deficient seeds contributed to lower fertility. During postharvest storage, the fruit of tetraploids softened faster, had higher TSS content and lower respiration rate.
Changes in the palaeoenvironment and paleoclimate expedite the process of evolutionary divergence in animals. The evolutionary events of some small mammals distributed in Xinjiang Arid Region remain ambiguous. Thus, it is necessary to predict their evolutionary histories based on divergence estimates. Some museum specimens were involved in this analysis because of sampling limitation for threatened species in the arid region. A related problem is that some mutilated specimens without complete taxonomic data made it difficult to directly analyze species divergence. Here, sequences of cytochrome c oxydase I were used to identify museum specimens and combined with cytochrome b to estimate the recent divergence of extant small mammals constrained with eight fossil calibrations. The results showed that the massive species differentiation emerged during the Middle and Late Miocene periods. We inferred that differentiation of these small mammals might be associated with the retreat of the Tethys Sea from the Tarim Basin around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and the global climate fluctuations during the Miocene period. Furthermore, the aridification and changes in the Taklimakan and Gurbantunggut Deserts might have driven the diversification of intraspecies and the emergence of cryptic species since the Late Pleistocene.
The antagonistic activities of essential oils of Ajania potaninii and A. fruticulosa against Ditylenchus destructor were determined by the liquid soak method in 96-well microplates. The main constituents of A. potaninii essential oil were 1,8-cineole (22.19%), (+)-camphor (12.84%), (−)-verbenol (13.84%) and borneol (12.67%). The results showed that the essential oils of A. fruticulosa (EC50 = 0.17 mg ml−1) and A. potaninii (EC50 = 0.27 mg ml−1) have antagonistic activity against D. destructor. The results also showed that 1,8-cineole (EC50 = 0.49 mg ml−1), myrtenol (EC50 = 0.40 mg ml−1) (A. fruticulosa) and (−)-verbenol (EC50 = 1.09 mg ml−1) (A. potaninii) have antagonistic activity. 1,8-Cineole is a key element affecting the antagonistic activity that was found in both essential oils. Several main constituents found in the essential oils had antagonistic effects against D. destructor. These results provide the basis for future development and utilisation of a substance to control D. destructor.
A transient suppression of visual perception during saccades ensures perceptual stability. In two experiments, we examined whether saccades affect time perception of visual and auditory stimuli in the seconds range. Specifically, participants completed a duration reproduction task in which they memorized the duration of a 6 s timing signal during the training phase and later reproduced that duration during the test phase. Four experimental conditions differed in saccade requirements and the presence or absence of a secondary discrimination task during the test phase. For both visual and auditory timing signals, participants reproduced longer durations when the secondary discrimination task required saccades to be made (i.e., overt attention shift) during reproduction as compared to when the discrimination task merely required fixation at screen center. Moreover, greater total saccade duration in a trial resulted in greater time distortion. However, in the visual modality, requiring participants to covertly shift attention (i.e., no saccade) to complete the discrimination task increased reproduced duration as much as making a saccade, whereas in the auditory modality making a saccade increased reproduced duration more than making a covert attention shift. In addition, we examined microsaccades in the conditions that did not require full saccades for both the visual and auditory experiments. Greater total microsaccade duration in a trial resulted in greater time distortion in both modalities. Taken together, the experiments suggest that saccades and microsaccades affect seconds range visual and auditory interval timing via attention and saccadic suppression mechanisms.