This article aims to explore how top management team (TMT) process affects strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR), and in turn, how strategic CSR influences firm performance. In addition, this article examines whether CSR mediates the relationship between TMT process and firm performance. The sample consists of 203 hotels from the tourism and hospitality industry in the southeast China. TMT processes assessed are communication and cohesion. Results indicate that (1) corporate social responsibility is positively related to firm performance, (2) top management team process (communication and cohesion) is positively related to corporate social responsibility, and (3) corporate social responsibility fully mediates the relationship between top management team process and firm performance. Results highlight upper echelons mechanisms that underpin the TMT process–firm performance relationship. This study contributes to understanding how TMT process affects firm performance both directly and indirectly, through strategic CSR.
China and some of its trade partners in Western Europe apply different legal regimes for international carriage of goods by railway — respectively Agreement on International Railway Freight Transportation (SMGS) and Uniform Rules Concerning the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Rail (CIM). For transportation of goods by railway between China and Western Europe both the CIM and the SMGS are often applicable. China’s initiative “the Belt and Road” promotes development of railway transport in Eurasia and creates new incentives for comparative study between those two international legal systems. This article provides a brief historical outline of comparative studies between the CIM and SMGS. This article also purports to show that some similarities and differences between the two regimes might be better understood from the perspective of comparative legal history. Taking into account inter alia the common origin of the current versions of the CIM and SMGS in the 4th revision of the CIM of 1933, differences and similarities between two legal regimes have been analysed with regard to the following topics: the scope of application of the CIM and SMGS; the nature of the carrier’s liability under the CIM and SMGS; exclusivity of the CIM, exclusivity of the contract of carriage under the SMGS; period of responsibility; persons for whom the carrier is liable.
Physiological adjustments are important strategies for small mammals in response to variation in food availability. To determine the physiological mechanisms affected by food restriction and refeeding, tree shrews were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in food intake, body mass, thermogenesis, body composition, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity, uncoupling protein-1 content in brown adipose tissue and serum leptin levels were measured. The results showed that body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin levels significantly decreased in food restricted tree shrews, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short “compensatory growth” rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. Resting metabolic rate, non-shivering thermogenesis, brown adipose tissue mass (mg), and uncoupling protein-1 content decreased significantly in response to food restriction, and returned to the control levels after the animals were refed ad libitum, while the brown adipose tissue mass (%) and cytochrome c oxidase activity remained stable during food restriction and refeeding. Food intake increased shortly after refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. These results suggest that Tupaia belangeri can adjust the status of its physiology integratively to cope with the lack of food by means of decreasing body mass, thermogenesis and serum leptin levels. Leptin may act as a starvation signal to predominantly mediate the reduction in body mass and energy expenditure.
The disease development and some physiobiochemical indices of 3-4-year-old Pinus thunbergii inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were studied. The results showed that after nematode invasion, the disease expanded from the base to the upper part of the main stem, there was an interruption of resin exudation, drying and pith browning occurred sequentially in stem xylem, then the needles wilted and finally the plant died. The number of nematodes increased continuously and rapidly, and increased significantly just after symptoms appeared in pine seedlings. The stem water content decreased gradually, stem and leaf relative water content in a new season branch began to decrease not long before symptoms appeared, and the optical density of organic acid extract from the stem of pine seedlings increased. It is suggested that stem water content could be used as a disease indicator, and organic acid would be the most reliable physiobiochemical index for early diagnosis of the disease.
The biodiversity of Yunnan, which is located in the Hengduan Mountains region of South-west China, is still underestimated. Here, we explore species diversity of Asian green pitvipers occurring in this region. Based on four mtDNA gene fragments (cyt. b, ND4, 12S RNA, and 16S RNA), we inferred phylogenetic position and relationships of Yunnan green pitvipers using Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods. Both methods consistently revealed that all examined Yunnan specimens are placed in five clades which should be referred to Trimeresurus albolabris, Viridovipera stejnegeri, V. gumprechti, and the genus Popeia, respectively. It was unexpected that the samples allied to V. gumprechti did not form a monophyletic clade, but rather two well supported, distinct clades. Further morphological comparison suggested that the specimens nested within the clade Popeia should be identified as P. popeiorum, which is a species new to China. As a result, there are currently at least five species occurring in Yunnan, China: Trimeresurus albolabris, Viridovipera stejnegeri, V. yunnanensis, V. gumprechti, and Popeia popeiorum.
This article documents the development of a precisely dated and wellreplicated long regional tree-ring width dating chronology for Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the northeastern Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau. It involves specimens from 22 archeological sites, 24 living tree sites, and 5 standing snags sites in the eastern and northeastern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China. The specimens were cross-dated successfully among different groups of samples and among different sites. Based on a total of 1438 series from 713 trees, the chronology covers 3585 years and is the longest chronology by far in China. Comparisons with chronologies of the same tree species about 200 km apart suggest that this chronology can serve for dating purposes in a region larger than the study area. This study demonstrates the great potential of Qilian juniper for dendrochronological research.