Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s Justice and Development Party (jdp) has continuously won elections and consolidated its power since 2002, while Turkish society has become increasingly conservative at the same time. The official implementation of the presidential system after June 2018 has triggered the world’s concerns and reflections about the future direction of Turkish society: a secular road, an Islamic road, or a new path of balance between religion and secularism. This necessitates an historical analysis of Turkey’s politico-religious relations. The role of Islam in Turkish society can be roughly divided into the following five stages: the suppression of Islam (1923–1950), the release of Islam (1950–), the re-politicization of Islam (1970–), the co-optation of Islam (1980–), and the new development of political Islam (2002–). During the jdp period, a fragile balance between secularism and Islamism had been achieved. But after the July 15th coup in 2016, the jdp adjusted its ideology from radical secularism to Islamic nationalism. The combination of Islamism and nationalism brings more challenges to the solidarity of Turkish society.
As the by-product of the one-child policy, the shidu have become a growing segment of the population. Their inherent characteristics, as well as their social relationships and means of interacting with the external environment, are issues that deserve our attention. Through compiling a virtual ethnology of the social media platform “Home of the Shidu”, as well as describing interactive processes such as the shidu individuals’ integration into and commiseration with the group, the collaborative defense of their rights, fragmentation within the community, and renewed legal defense efforts, the author analyzes the characteristics and mechanisms of the shidu and attempts to better understand the realities of their existence and demands.
Based on data from China’s listed companies from 1998 to 2005, this paper investigates whether the incorporation of corporate life cycle variables into the accrual model improves the model’s explanatory power. Results of the empirical study show that the inclusion of corporate life cycle variables reduces the likelihood of both type I and II errors, and it also significantly improves the explanatory power of the accrual model.
As China transitions into a socialist market economy, social psychology is adapting in accordance with social changes. This chapter focuses on the social psychology component of the comprehensive study of the current state of society, focusing particularly on the general attitude toward the current state of society, social relations, and social conflicts. Understanding current social dynamics, particularly typical conflicts in interpersonal and group relationships, is vital to ameliorating social conflicts. Strategies for dissolving social conflict are methods that consider people?s internal needs, external social conflicts, and the nature and progression of the conflict in an attempt to mitigate or resolve the issue. The strategy for dissolving social conflicts is a complex process that also considers people?s internal feelings, rational judgment, and the outcome they seek to gain for a final comprehensive solution.
This chapter stresses that the total quantity control of coal consumption is crucial for the low-carbon green transformation of energy in China. Coal mining, transportation and its utilization exert a great impact on ecology, the environment, public health and climate change, and incur very high external costs in social and economic fields. Coal is the chief culprit for air pollution, haze, solid wastes and water pollution. China is the largest carbon dioxide emitter. Coal consumption must first be reduced prior to reaching its peak by 2030.