An Approach to a Harmonizing Interpretation in International Law
Author: Yao Li
In Exclusion from Protection as a Refugee, Yao Li analyses Article 1F of the 1951 Refugee Convention. She argues that the exclusion clause is a quasi-punitive provision and must therefore be interpreted with due regard to (International) Criminal Law. Having developed an interpretation approach to consider external legal notions, Li provides a solution for all the relevant issues in the context of Article 1F, based on a “harmonizing interpretation”. The study therefore not only comprehensively examines the exclusion clause at the intersection of International Refugee Law and International Criminal Law, but also contributes to anti-fragmentation efforts in International Law.
In: Exclusion from Protection as a Refugee
In: Exclusion from Protection as a Refugee
In: Exclusion from Protection as a Refugee
In: Exclusion from Protection as a Refugee
In: Exclusion from Protection as a Refugee
In: Selected Essays on the History of Contemporary China
Authors: Manfred Elfstrom and Yao Li
China has become a land of protests, though the Chinese state possesses considerable administrative capacity. In this volume, Manfred Elfstrom and Yao Li provide an overview of Chinese contentious politics. They dig deep into major forms of social conflict, explore structural explanations for why protest occurs in China, and describe the ways in which various organizations and framings of issues by citizens affect how protests play out. Shifting to where grassroots activism ultimately leads, Elfstrom and Li survey China’s coercive and conciliatory institutions for maintaining social control, document and explain patterns in the state’s handling of different types of resistance, and examine the social and political impact of unrest. This work not only contributes to a deeper understanding of contentious politics and governance in China, but also provides insights for studies of social movements and authoritarian politics in general.
Authors: Li Erping and Yao Yunsong


The Belt and Road Initiative is an important contribution to both the theory and the practice of the right to development. Since China’s reform and opening up, the Chinese government has put the right to life and the right to development as the priority of human rights over other rights, and this has greatly facilitated the rapid economic development in China. Nowadays, the Belt and Road Initiative has linked those countries along the road to “a Community of Shared Future”. Countries within this Community not only enjoy the right to development with relevant responsibilities, rights and benefits, but they also enjoy the win-win cooperation of the right to development as well. Therefore, the Belt and Road Initiative enriches the Declaration on the Right to Development adopted by the United Nations, meanwhile the “Community of Shared Future” consisting of related nations will become an entity with a high profile to boost the right to development.

In: The Right to Development
Authors: Wei Yao, Heng Li, and Mosi Weng

Extant research shows that universities do not usually foster an inclusive innovation system. This paper examines an innovation program at Zhejiang University that targeted rural areas in China, and that sought to promote an inclusive innovation system. This case illuminates how universities could play a critical role in configuring inclusive regional innovation systems by means of selection, improvement and diffusion of technology, dissemination and absorption of knowledge, access to science and technology, intermediation between the actors of innovation, training skilled labor, and cultivating talent. We underscore how the inclusive innovation program of Zhejiang University allowed this university to help realize the enormous consumption, production, and entrepreneurial potential of low-income households in rural China.

In: Triple Helix