The United States and Chinese higher education systems are undertaking internationalization within a context of rapid global change. Those changes include the massification and commodification of education, emphasis on developing students’ global competency, and the publication of international rankings of institutions. Examining student mobility, curriculum internationalization, research collaboration, and international partnerships, this chapter compares and contrasts U.S. and Chinese internationalization contexts, policies, and priorities. Areas of partnerships between the two nations are introduced, such as student and scholar mobility, joint degrees, branch campuses, language learning, and cultural exchange. For the partnerships to be successful, proponents must find ways to work within both cultural and political contexts, conforming to the realities and requirements of both systems.