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Edited by Yong Zhang

This book is the second volume of a planned trilogy on legal protection of citizens' rights against the state in East and Southeast Asia. The first volume was published in 1997, under the title of Comparative Studies on the Judicial Review System in East and Southeast Asia. The third book will deal with the subject of due process of law with respect to administrative decision-making in these areas.
This second volume examines the historical development and present function of governmental liability in Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. Both theoretical and practical problems of governmental liability are analyzed through comparative perspectives. As German and Dutch law have a strong influence in East and Southeast Asian countries, the governmental liability system in these two countries is also discussed. During the process of modernizing the economy and legal systems, especially with the globalization of the economy and the internationalization of Western law, it is inevitable for countries in East and Southeast Asia to introduce a governmental compensation system. However, because of a lack of experience of civil society and the tradition of the rule of law, of shortage of finance, and of different viewpoints on human rights, the introduced and planned governmental compensation systems in East and Southeast Asia could not be expected to function in the same way as those in Western countries. This book is based on the assumption that it is better to prevent damage from happening than compensating for it with money.
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Edited by Yong Zhang

This book presents a unique perspective on the development and status quo of judicial review in East and Southeast Asia. In particular, it answers the questions of whether the system of judicial review of administrative action functions in East and Southeast Asian countries in the same way as in Western countries, and whether this system functions in the same way in countries that adopt the principle of concentration of powers and the principle of separation of powers. Together with papers on judicial review in the Netherlands and Germany, and references to English law, the legal systems discussed constitute a heterogeneous group of developed and developing economies, continental and Anglo-Saxon systems of law and capitalist and socialist legal orders.
The research and comparisons presented here form an invaluable resource for any scholar and lawyer interested in contemporary Asian law, or in the many facets of comparative administrative law.
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Yong Zhang and Minghua Han

In order to investigate the self identity and vocational identity among community youth in Shanghai and their associated spatial experience, 4 focus groups, made up of 14 individuals were interviewed. We assigned numbers to indicate each interviewee as well as the general theme of each transcription of the interview. Results are as follows: community youth are in a transitional period in their lives, especially in regards to self concept, family, and how they experience their role in society; there is a notable distance between reality and the ideal career goals; the family space and community space have distinct characteristics for community youth, and there are specific interactive patterns that exist between the two types of spaces. Based on these results, we have introduced several insights into career guidance for this population.

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Edited by Yong Zhang and Toshiro Fuke

Ten specialists in the fields of tax law and public finance from Japan, the Netherlands, China, South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Vietnam recently gathered in Leiden, the Netherlands to present papers and give lectures on tax law in those countries for the symposium `Tax Law in East and Southeast Asia Towards the 21st Century.'
The meeting fostered the exchange of information on recent reforms of tax systems, with participants examining both differences and similarities and discussing further planned or necessary reforms for each country in East and Southeast Asia on the threshold of the 21st century. The papers collected in this volume were originally prepared for the conference. After the conference, contributors revised their papers on the basis of the discussions conducted.
Giving due consideration to the comparison of tax systems in these areas, these revised papers emphasise themes such as tax structure, especially that of direct and indirect taxes; intergovernmental fiscal relationships; and recent reforms to and problems of tax systems. The result: an extremely useful and informative work which covers ground rarely covered before. Legal and other tax practitioners as well as academics will find this volume of great value.
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ZHANG Xiaohui, JI Zhihong and CUI Yong

In recent years, the People’s Bank of China (PBC) has carried out monetary policy by means of reserve requirement frequently in an effort to hedge the excess liquidity in the banking system. But just like other government taxes, reserve requirement maybe have an optimal required reserve rate (RRR). When the RRR have been raised to the optimal level, the effect of reserve requirement policy in money control and liquidity sterilization should also be withered due to the loss of the “tax base”. Therefore, we establish a theoretical model and analysis framework and make the corresponding econometric test and empirical analysis. The main conclusions are as follows: The optimal RRR in China at present is about 23%. If the RRR is further raised above 23%, the monetary authority should adjust the deposit and loan interest rates, interest margins between deposits and loans and the deposit reserve requirement rate to expand the using scope of the reserve requirement policy.

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Fang Zhang, Kevin Messenger and Yong Wang

The evolutionary theory in parental care predicts that parents may defend more vigorously of nests with higher survival and reproductive benefits. Based on this prediction, we proposed that the occurrence of nest defence behaviours in Chinese alligators might be connected to reproductive benefits (clutch size, fertility rate, and hatching rate). In this study, we examined the relationship between the occurrence of nest defence behaviours and (1) the variations in clutch size, fertility rate, and hatching rate of wild Chinese alligators, and (2) the variations in clutch size and fertility rate of captive Chinese alligators in a semi-natural facility. Results showed that for the wild Chinese alligators, the fertility and hatching rates with nest defence behaviours were higher than those without nest defence behaviours. The results also showed that for the captive Chinese alligators, the fertility rates with nest defence behaviours were higher than those without nest defence behaviours. These results suggested that nest defence behaviours in Chinese alligators might be relative to reproductive benefits, thus likely to further improve the probability of the species’ reproductive success.

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Sergei Volis, Yong-Hong Zhang, Michael Dorman and Michael Blecher

Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in an endangered species is essential for establishing efficient conservation practices. However, the proper use of this information requires understanding the role of habitat-specific selection in genetic structuring. We present a study of population differentiation in an endangered species that utilizes guidelines of recently a proposed quasi in situ conservation approach, i.e. taking into account the scale and spatial pattern of local adaptation since if local adaptation is important, the introduced genotypes must be matched to the local biotic/abiotic conditions. Following this approach, we examined the extent and structure of genetic (AFLP) and phenotypic variation and tested for adaptive significance of this variation in critically endangered Iris atrofusca growing in Israel and Jordan. From these results we propose a sampling design that would (i) preserve species adaptive potential and (ii) insure environmental match of the plant material for relocation, reintroduction or enhancement.

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Qinhua Tian, Xiaohua Gou, Yong Zhang, Yongsheng Wang and Zexin Fan

A juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.; synonym: Sabina przewalskii) tree-ring width chronology was developed to investigate the regional climate variability for the Qilian Mountains. Statistically, the chronology was appropriate for reconstructing the regional mean temperature of May-June from A.D.1700 to the present. The phenomenon of synchronous extremely high temperatures and extreme droughts in the 1920s was revealed by comparing our reconstruction with drought events in this region. Multi-taper spectral analysis indicated the existence of significant low- and high-frequency periods (40–46 years, 34, 23–25, 5.6, 2.1, 2.5–2.8 years). Overall, the study not only extended the temperature record, but also provided reliable long-term temperature information to help understand the possible forcing of climate changes in the Qilian Mountains.

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Xuan Zhang, Meiwen Zhang, Qunhua Han, Cong Guo, Xunjun Zhou, Bo Li and Yong Wang

Abstract

Density dependence plays a key role in determining the population sizes of rodents. To explore density-dependent effects on sexual development, we documented and analyzed the development of the sex organs and hormone concentrations in both sexes, and the time to maturity in females of the reed vole in response to different population densities under laboratory conditions. Weaned voles were put into either same-sex or mixed-sex groups. Upon maturity, organ coefficients were calculated for sex organs as the length or weight of the sex organ divided by the length or weight of the body, respectively. The results demonstrate that, for individuals in same-sex groups, the coefficients for uterine length and short diameter of the testis decreased as population density increased. Population density had a highly significant effect on hormone concentrations as well as time to maturity in females. Population density in mixed-sex groups affects hormone concentrations, and increases the organ coefficients for ovarian weight, uterine weight, and uterine length; however, population density had no significant effect on the time to maturity of female voles in mixed-sex groups. These experiments showed that the effect of density dependence on the development of the vole differed between same-sex and mixed-sex conditions, the effects of increased density being greater in same-sex groups. We conclude that the effect of promoting sexual development between individuals might be greater than the effect of inhibition between individuals in mixed-sex groups.

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Xu-Guang Liu, Zhi-Zhong Zhang, Yun-Hai Zhang, Yun-Sheng Li, Fu-Gui Fang, Feng-Yin Li and Yong Tao

Abstract

The present study was carried out to describe the reproductive system of a single adult female wolf, including the uterine horns, cervix, ovaries and follicles. The cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) and oocytes were also examined. The results showed that the size of each ovary was about 9 × 6 mm with an average of weight of 461.3 mg. The uterus was Y-shaped, and the length of each uterine horn was 14 cm. The distance from the cervix to the bifurcation of the uterine horns was also 14 cm. The left ovary had two large follicles on the surface with a diameter more than 4 mm, while the right ovary had no protuberant follicles. The ovaries were covered with a lot of fat, and were well developed. The COCs derived from the antral follicles were dark, and the nuded oocytes had a dark cytoplasm. The diameter of the oocytes removed from the antral follicles was 116.8 μm on average. The ovaries had a smooth surface and all the follicles were under the surface except for two big follicles on the left ovary. Histological examination of the ovaries by haematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that the primordial, primary, preantral and antral follicles were scattered in the cortex, the medulla was abundant with blood vessels. This study preliminarily reveals the features of the wolf reproductive system and the structure of its oocytes and ovaries, which might be indicative for further study and the protection of the species.