The academic study of stability maintenance issues has focused on two main aspects: understanding social stability in terms of an adaptable and flexible authoritarian state; and understanding the occurrence of mass incidents in terms of the emergence of an active rights consciousness among the public. However, a lack of theory regarding state-society power and empirical data on government-citizen interactions means that research into the mechanisms and impacts of stability maintenance is nowhere near adequate. Using Gramsci’s theory of hegemony and field studies of two Chinese cities, this article analyzes the micro-processes in which grassroots governments assimilate protesting workers, farmers and property owners. Three strategies that grassroots governments use to manufacture consent in day-to-day operations are identified: the normalization and conventionalization of negotiations during conflict (material concessions); designing and implementing bureaucratic tricks (procedural consent); and creating an information- and services-led government under the banner of peace and stability (moral leadership). After an in-depth analysis of the rich and vivid experiences of both government and the public during these processes, the authors find that stability maintenance involves maintaining a balance between consent and coercion – that is, stability is reached by compromise between government authority and the citizens’ rights.
The Haynei is one of seven species aggregates (clusters of species having similar flower morphology) recognized in section Oncocyclus of genus Iris. This aggregate, characterized by dark-colored flowers, is represented by six species in Israel and adjacent Jordan. There is, however, no knowledge of the genetic relationship of these species making verification of their taxonomic status impossible. We investigated genetic variation in this group using analysis of whole chloroplast genomes and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). We also used species distribution modeling (SDM) to predict species ranges under current climatic conditions. We found some population groups within the currently recognized species of section Oncocyclus to represent dramatically different genetic entities which devaluates a general trend of merging many previously recognized species of section Oncocyclus based on their flower morphology. Despite the importance of homoploid hybridization in this group’s evolution and some apparently sporadically happening inter-specific gene flow, the main evolutionary forces in Oncocyclus appear to be vicariance and spatial isolation. Our findings suggest that some of the currently recognized species in section Oncocyclus need revision. A revision must be based on genetic analyses allowing the reconstruction of ancestry and recognition of the importance of vicariance and spatial isolation in the evolution of this group. The implications of the present findings for conservation are discussed.
Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in an endangered species is essential for establishing efficient conservation practices. However, the proper use of this information requires understanding the role of habitat-specific selection in genetic structuring. We present a study of population differentiation in an endangered species that utilizes guidelines of recently a proposed quasi in situ conservation approach, i.e. taking into account the scale and spatial pattern of local adaptation since if local adaptation is important, the introduced genotypes must be matched to the local biotic/abiotic conditions. Following this approach, we examined the extent and structure of genetic (AFLP) and phenotypic variation and tested for adaptive significance of this variation in critically endangered Iris atrofusca growing in Israel and Jordan. From these results we propose a sampling design that would (i) preserve species adaptive potential and (ii) insure environmental match of the plant material for relocation, reintroduction or enhancement.