Using a simultaneous equation model of tariffs and impurts, this paper empirically investigates the determinants of tariff rates applied in Vietnam using two-digit ISIC data over the 2001-2006 period. This paper extends the findings of previous studies in Several ways. First, there has been no study thus far conducted that has attempted to apply the endogenous theory of tariffs to explain tariff formation in developing countries, including Vietnam. Second, imports and trade protection are simultaneously modeled using the two-stage least square estimator. Third, this study employed an up-to-date panel dataset that was recently made available in Vietnam, which allowed us to measure the dynamic interactions among trade flows. industry characteristics, and trade protection. The results of this paper showed that tariffs are frequently high in industries with a small number of firms, large employment size, low import penetration, low industry growth rate, and less capital stock. Therefore, the findings of our study on Vietnam provide further evidence favoring the theory of endogenous protection.
This paper investigates the impacts of IPR protection in foreign countries on Korea's export performance. The empirical analysis in this paper differs from those in previous studies in several respects. First, the impact of IPRs is firstly forced to be uniform across sectors and then is allowed to differ across sectors so that industry-specific evidence can be documented. Second, in order to analyze the impact of IPR protection on trade, we employ the random-effects model to incorporate differences between cross-sectional entities by allowing the intercept to change, but the amount of change is random. Third, the study is based on an analysis of the most recent panel data which allow the patent regime to change over time. Finally, this study provides new evidence regarding the linkage between IPRs and trade with a focus on Korea. Our major findings are summarized as follows. First, reinforced IPR protection in foreign countries has a positive effect on Korea's total exports, indicating the dominance of market expansion effects. Second, stronger protection of IPRs induces Korea's exports to all foreign countries regardless of their level of development. The effects are stronger in medium-income and high-income countries. Third, Korea tends to export more to countries with strong imitative ability when the IPR protection in those countries is strengthened. Finally, stronger protection of IPRs in foreign countries with weak imitative ability leads to an ambiguous reduction in Korea's exports. Efforts to increase the GDP, improve social infrastructure, accelerate domestic reforms (openness to trade), and strengthen IPR protection in foreign countries are suggested as a remedy for obstacles to Korea's exports. Importantly, strengthening of IPRs would have the greatest effect if foreign GDP also rose.
This paper examines the impacts of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection in foreign markets on ASEAN countries' exports for the period 2005 - 2010 using a dyanamic panel data model, which allows us to account for persistence effect. In order to solve the inconsistency of OLS in a dynamic modelling, we opt for the system GMM estimator because it helps researchers overcome the problems of serial correlation,heteroskedasticity, and enogeneity for some explanator variables. Our reselts are robust and summarized as follows. first, reinfoced IPR protection in foreign countries has a positive effect on ASEAN'S exports, indicating the dominance of market expansion effect. Second, regardless of the level of economic development in importing countries, stronger IPR protection induces ASEAN's exports to foreign countries. Third, the trade impacts of IPR protection are strongest in high-income trading partners, followed by medium-income,and finally, low-income partner countries. Fourth,at the sectoral level, the effect of IPR protection is found to be the strongest for capital-intensive exports to highly developed countries.
This study analyzes the impacts of the formation of AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Agreement) on China’s agricultural exports. The Hausman-Taylor analysis is applied to panel data collected from China and its 68 trading partners from 1993–2012. Our major findings areas follows. First, the discrimination in tariffs imposed by AFTA diverts trade in agricultural products from China toward AFTA’s member countries. Second, at the sectoral level, the trade diversion effects of AFTA’s formation on China’s exports are significant in the case of beverage and tobacco industries. AFTA and China need to focus more on diversifying and differentiating their farming products. To gain better access to AFTA’s market, more investment in research and development activities is recommended as a cure for Chinese farmers. Moreover, this study implies that more efforts in reducing tariff and non-tariff barriers to further liberalize trade between China and AFTA could enhance their bilateral trade flows.
This study examines the impacts of institutional quality on export patterns of ASEAN-6 countries using panel data from 115 economies over the period 2000–2012. The results of the fixed and random effects estimation methods show that better institutional quality in ASEAN’s trading partners plays a crucial role in the bloc’s export performance. By decomposing institutional quality using different components, we also find that the importers’ legal structure and protection of property rights as well as freedom to trade internationally are important determinants in attracting more exports from ASEAN countries. For exporting countries, the sizes of the government and freedom to trade internationally also play a critical role in boosting trade from the bloc.
Mallacootacarinacera sp. nov., a new amphipod species of the family Maeridae, collected from Weno Island, Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia, is described for the first time, with a detailed description and illustrations, and characteristic features between related species are discussed.