The study introduces exemplary explicit teaching strategies as enacted by a middle school STEAM teacher. Through a 10-lesson climate change STEAM program, data were collected to explore explicit teaching strategies using O-TOP (Oregon Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation [OCEPT] Teaching Observation Protocol) and NGSS 8 Practices (Next Generation Science Standards). Data from teacher interviews and class observations were also used to identify and describe how this STEAM teacher offered students opportunities to solve real problems in their community. Examples demonstrating three stages of STEAM education: understanding context presentation, performing creative design, and experiencing emotional touch are provided. We argue STEAM programs should be presented with more realistic issues arising from the community students belong to and that explicit teaching strategies should give students the opportunity to achieve core competencies and scientific literacy. Our study offers implications about the need for systemic teacher training and professional development for STEAM education.
This study explored democratic citizenship (DC) for students by developing a DC framework (DCF) with eight components. We employed the DCF to examine what and how much DC was included in Korean science textbooks and lab books focused on the topic of energy for Grades K–12. We found different DC components were included at different grade levels and some components were not present at all. To help address the uneven distribution of these components, we developed four DC inclusive science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) books related to the topic of energy. These books were designed with the DCF to foster rich DC learning experiences in school science. We engaged 13 teachers as consultants in a validation process when developing the DC inclusive STEAM books. This study describes the development and implementation of the DCF for preparing supplemental science curriculum materials that can improve students’ appreciation for DC.