Author: Yuzhuo Cai

While there is a common belief among policymakers and academics around the world that Triple Helix relationships between university, industry and government provide optimal conditions for innovation, it should be noted that the Triple Helix concept has been developed from the experience of advanced economies in the West. There is a lack of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence on whether the Triple Helix model is applicable in non-Western contexts. Following the understanding that the evolution of an ideal Triple Helix model is facilitated by certain institutional logics in Western societies, this paper takes China as an example to examine how the institutional logics in China are different from those of the West and how the institutional logics in China would promote or impede the development of the Triple Helix model in China in light of an extensive review of the relevant literature and policy documents. The study suggests that to optimise the Chinese innovation policies, China needs on the one hand to adjust some elements of its institutional environment to facilitate the interactions between key innovation actors and on the other hand to be innovative in developing its own Triple Helix modes given the unique Chinese institutional environment which will persist in the foreseeable future.

In: Triple Helix
Author: Yuzhuo CAI

This paper explores ways to enhance overseas Chinese graduate employability by taking Finnish-educated Chinese students/graduates as an example. In so doing, it understands that graduate employability development is a joint effort of multiple stakeholders including students, graduates, academics, program coordinators, employers, and policymakers. Accordingly, it provides arguments and suggestions for how to enhance the employability of these graduates in terms of the labor market context, employers’ beliefs and actions, the responsibilities of higher education institutions, and student/graduate commitment. It also points out two major challenges faced by overseas Chinese graduates as well as their educational providers, which are linked respectively to gaps between what graduates acquire in higher education and what is required in the labor market, as well as gaps from the employers’ perspective: areas where employers need to understand more about universities and catch up with new ideas generated by them.

In: Frontiers of Education in China

The Triple Helix of university-industry-government interactions, highlighting the enhanced role of the university in the transition from industrial to knowledge-based society, has become widespread in innovation and entrepreneurship studies. We analyze classic literature and recent research, shedding light on the theoretical development of a model that has engendered controversy for being simultaneously analytical and normative, theoretical, practical and policy-relevant. We identify lacunae and suggest future analytical trajectories for theoretical development of the Triple Helix model. The explanatory power of Triple Helix has been strengthened by integrating various social science concepts, e.g. Simmel’s triad, Schumpeter’s organizational entrepreneur, institutional logics and social networks, into its framework. As scholars and practitioners from various disciplinary and inter-disciplinary research fields, e.g. artificial intelligence, political theory, sociology, professional ethics, higher education, regional geography and organizational behavior join Triple Helix studies or find their perspectives integrated, new directions appear for Triple Helix research.

In: Triple Helix
In: Public Vices, Private Virtues?

This paper argues that failure to deeply understand various existing organizations of university-industry technology transfer in China impedes the progress of both practice and research on technology transfer between university and industry in that country. In response, it attempts to categorize different types of university technology transfer organizations in China in over a 30-year time span and analyze the relations between these organizations. In so doing, Tsinghua University is taken as an example for analysis, because technology transfer at Tsinghua University can be seen as a microcosm of university-industry technology transfer in China with pioneer practices and successful experience to be followed by other universities in China. The analysis is guided by an analytical framework, constructed by integrating the insights from relevant literature. The framework distinguishes between different forms of university technology transfer organizations by focusing on six dimensions of the organizational characteristics. After identifying eight types of university technology transfer organizations in Tsinghua University with detailed descriptions of their respective organizational characteristics, the paper further groups them into a four-category typology. Besides its contribution in constructing a framework to understand university technology transfer organizations in the Chinese context, the paper also solicits suggestions for Chinese and international stakeholders who may potentially cooperate with Chinese research universities in research, development, and innovation.

In: Triple Helix
International cooperation in higher education is not new, but gained new urgency in recent years with the expansion of the knowledge economy, the easy flow of communications and the emulation created by international rankings. In the European Union’s countries, international competition and the process of political and economic unification required national higher education institutions to give priority to international cooperation, while large countries such as Russia, China, Brazil and South Africa intensified their effort to modernise their institutions and link them to the international flow of science, technology and talent, leading similar trends in other countries in their regions. These global trends are shaped by the national culture and institutions of each country, and the existing national and international cooperation policies and instruments on all sides. In Building Higher Education Cooperation with the EU: Challenges and Opportunities from Four Continents, the authors look at how these interactions occur from the perspectives of the European Union and the countries involved and make recommendations on policies that could make international cooperation more fluid and beneficial to all parties involved.