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  • Author or Editor: Zainal Abidin Bagir x
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The landscape of freedom of religion or belief (FoRB) in Indonesia has been shaped by two elements: first, the progressive adoption of human rights in the new laws and amended constitution, as a result of the democratization which started in 1998; second, the old governance of religion which acknowledges limited religious pluralism and emphasizes harmony over freedom. A striking feature resulting from this combination is the addition of “religious values” as a ground of FoRB limitation in the new chapter on human rights in the amended Constitution, which otherwise draws its inspiration from the ICCPR and other international human rights covenants. Indonesian “public order” and “public morals” are understood to consist of, among other things, respect and protection of religious values. While the emphasis on religious values and public order produces most restrictions, when it comes to limitations to FoRB on grounds of public health, the government seems reluctant to impose necessary restrictions.

Open Access
In: Religion & Human Rights


This article discusses the religious dimension of the coastal adaptation of Muslim communities on northern coast of Java, Indonesia. As a volcanic island, geomorphological processes are the main causes of coastal inundation in Java. Nonetheless, debates on coastal adaptation mostly related to climate change adaptation. By focusing on North Coast Java, this study aims to draw parallels between the experiences of Javanese communities and communities facing rising sea levels in other parts of the world. Two Muslim communities were selected as both have experienced coastal flooding and indicate religious dimension in their adaptive strategies. This study has three main findings: 1. The religious dimension contributes significantly to environmental adaptation processes; 2. Religious practices interact in both positive and negative ways to affect the adapting communities; and 3. In the Javanese context, environmental adaptation takes the form of a narrative around local history and the experiential knowledge of the drowning communities.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology