The construal of the self is related to individuals' cognition, emotion and behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate shame in the context of interdependent-self and independent-self culture. 163 Chinese and 196 American college undergraduates completed a questionnaire about their reaction to 3 different scenarios about shameful events involving 5 different persons including self, mother, boy/girl friend, best friend and classmate. The participants reported the intensity of shame they felt in each of the situation and how close they were related to other people in the scenarios. The results demonstrated that there is a significant difference between Chinese and American participants on the levels of shame across all the scenarios, as well as for the persons involved in the scenario. It was also found that the intensity of shame was reduced as the relationship between the participants and the persons involved in the shameful events becomes remote in social distance. A significant correlation was found between closeness of relationship and intensity of shame felt. Implications for understanding cultural differences to emotions and future studies are discussed.
A population of Oscheius chongmingensis was isolated from a soil sample collected from an alfalfa field in the vicinity of Hailar, Inner Mongolia, and was designated as the Tumian strain. This nematode has a facultative entomopathogenic activity and reproduces on the Galleria mellonella larvae. We compared our isolate with the original description of O. chongmingensis, checked several paratype slides of this species and compared it with cultures of the original Shanghai strain. Poor morphology, morphometrics and some errors in the original description of O. chongmingensis encouraged us to re-describe this species. The species is characterised by having five distinct ridges in the lateral field in adults.. The stoma of O. chongmingensis is long and narrow, in adults approximately 3.5-4.5 times as long as wide, whereas in dauer juveniles it may be 6-7 times longer than wide. Males possess a ventral pair of small bristle-like sensilla posterior to the cloacal opening. Both the Tumian and original strain are amphimictic with a higher proportion of females, but males are not rare (ca 2.5:1).
Limited information is available about how mammalian browsing activity influences the dynamic defense mechanisms of plants. Here, we aimed to clarify the response mechanism of a herbaceous plant (Chinese lyme grass, Leymus chinensis) to browsing by a mammalian herbivore (Brandt's vole, Lasiopodomy brandtii). We used high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry to investigate changes in the concentrations of 6-MBOA, total phenol and condensed tannin in Chinese lyme grass seedlings with respect to its ontogeny and different types of damage treatments. 6-MBOA concentrations were higher on day 7 and day 8 than on days 12 and 17 after seedling germination. The concentrations of total phenol and condensed tannin were higher on day 12 than on days 7 and 8 after seedling germination. Compared to the control, higher 6-MBOA concentrations were obtained in the salivation, gnawing and artificial cutting treatment groups. The response of 6-MBOA was delayed in the artificial cutting group compared to the salivation and gnawing groups. In contrast, the concentrations of total phenol and condensed tannin were higher in the artificial cutting and control groups compared to the salivation and gnawing groups. 6-MBOA concentration was negatively correlated with total phenol concentration. The results indicated that 6-MBOA concentration decreased with seedling ontogeny, and that it could be induced by Brandt's vole saliva. In conclusion, our study verified the hypothesis that the browsing by Brandt's vole induces the dynamic defenses of L. chinensis.