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Authors: Dong Zhang and Junda Lin

MATING WITHOUT ANTERIOR PLEOPODS IN A SIMULTANEOUS HERMAPHRODITIC SHRIMP, LYSMATA WURDEMANNI (DECAPODA, CARIDEA) BY DONG ZHANG 1,3 ) and JUNDA LIN 2,4 ) 1 ) Vero Beach Marine Laboratory, Florida Institute of Technology, 805 E. 46 th Place, Vero Beach, FL 32963, U.S.A. 2 ) Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The effects of copulatory rami removal of male-role shrimp (male-phase (MP) or euhermaphrodi- te-phase (EP)) on mating behavior of a simultaneous hermaphroditic shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni , were investigated in the laboratory. There was no difference in general mating

In: Crustaceana

Foreign language teaching has been playing a dominant role in China’s curriculum reform, especially in the present globalization of Chinese society and economy. However, the insufficient research into foreign language teaching and blindly adopting western theory demand China learn from its own experience and also develop western foreign language teaching theories that innovate and promote its education system and research.

In: Frontiers of Education in China

Based on a survey of students from different social strata, different family backgrounds and different levels of access to higher education in 10 higher education institutions (HEIs) in Yunnan, an ethnic minority (EM) province, this essay tries to find out the discrepancy in the enrollment opportunity of higher education for children from different strata in the EM province in order to find a breakthrough to narrow the gap.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
Authors: Xuan Dong and Xianyu Zhang


This article explores why Chinese parents are keen to urge their children to advance themselves by actively participating in elocution training, a popular form of shadow education. Drawing on 14 in-depth interviews with parents in north-east China, this study highlights that these parents hope that their children will accumulate cultural capital by exercising their oratorical skills. Many parents expect their children to articulate cultural capital in the present on the performance stage and transform it into life-long symbolic currency on the metaphorical stage of their future lives. Thus, this article argues that the purssuit of “silver tongues” is not only the articulation of parents’ expectations regarding their children’s personal growth, but also a critical method of constructing a utopic accessible, successful, and meaningful life for these parents, rather than their children.

In: Asian Journal of Social Science

Religious beliefs in Chinese cultural background, especially in Chinese secular society, have rarely been systematically investigated. The nonreligious-based population in China endorses certain supernatural beliefs or has related transcendent experience, even though they usually claim themselves as non-believers. Therefore, the current research examined the spirituality-prosociality association in Chinese secular background, demonstrating how spiritual connection with the transcendence related to individual secular social life. A total of 440 Chinese participants completed our questionnaires in three survey studies. The results showed that: 1) for the nonreligious-based population in China, spirituality was positively connected with personal prosocial trait, prosocial attitude, and prosocial behavior; 2) the prosocial trait of compassionate love partially mediated the association between spirituality and daily prosocial expenses on time and money; and 3) personal emphasis on moral principles such as ultimate justice beliefs partially mediated the association between spirituality and interpersonal altruism in organizational settings. Limitations and future directions were discussed.

In: Archive for the Psychology of Religion


The mollissima-subgroup of Pont (1965) belongs to the Fannia serena species-group of Chillcott (1961) in the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (family Fanniidae). A review of the F. mollissima-subgroup, previously known from eleven species, is enlarged to include seven additional species: F. albisquama Wang & Zhang, sp. n., F. biseta Wang & Zhang, sp. n., F. doxonglaensis Wang & Zhang, sp. n., F. mainling Wang & Zhang, sp. n., F. multiseta Wang & Zhang, sp. n., F. nigribasicosta Wang & Zhang, sp. n., and F. tibetana Wang & Zhang, sp. n. A key to the known species of the F. mollissima-subgroup is given. To facilitate comparison of the species, the original diagnosis of the F. mollissima-subgroup has been expanded. The biogeography of the subgroup is discussed, including its origin and evolutionary history, the effect of the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the effect of glacial periods during the Quaternary.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

A concept map is a schematic device for representing a set of concept meanings embedded in a framework of propositions. It can be used to evaluate students’ knowledge structure. This article introduces the comparative study of Chinese and American secondary school students’ knowledge structure. They are compared quantitatively and qualitatively in terms of mean score, individual proposition scores, proposition choice and map structure. The results indicate that students’ knowledge structures in the two countries are remarkably different. Compared with American students, Chinese students’ ability to take an exam is stronger and their mean score is higher. However, Chinese students need to improve their general knowledge and creativity although their basic knowledge is solid and they are better in mastering discipline knowledge and knowledge application.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
Authors: Zhang Ping and Zhang Dong


Traditional Chinese medicine originated from Taoist thought in the pre-Qin period of China, especially the classic “Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic of Chinese medicine”, while Chinese Taoism also originated from pre-Qin Taoist thought. The representative figure of pre-Qin Taoist thought is Lao Tzu, and his work “Tao Te Ching” is used as a reference Representative, as a Chinese religion pursuing cultivation to become a god, Chinese Taoism respects Lao Tzu as the supreme old monarch and regards him as the leader, and uses Lao Tzu’s “Tao Te Ching” as a classic. Therefore, Traditional Chinese medicine and Taoism share the same origin. Taoism believes that in order to become immortal, diseases must be eliminated. Therefore, Taoism in turn uses Traditional Chinese medicine to form a unique Taoist medicine, which is recorded in the Taoist classic “Tao Zang”. There are many prescriptions derived from Taoism and Traditional Chinese medicine.

Open Access
In: Interdisciplinary Journal for Religion and Transformation in Contemporary Society

Understanding the reproductive response of host plants to herbivores is important in grazing ecology and grassland management. Simulated grazing experiments were conducted to determine the influence of different grazing intensities on reproductive performance of a shrub, Caragana microphylla Lam. The total leaf mass, total flower mass, total flower mass allocation, and single flower mass allocation decreased with increased grazing intensity. The total spine mass, single flower mass and total spine mass allocation increased with increased grazing intensity. The stem mass, stem mass allocation and total leaf mass allocation had not significant change with the increasing grazing intensity. Under heavy grazing treatments, the host plants significantly decreased their investment in reproduction and increased investment in physical defense organs. Although there were no significant differences in the number of ovules among different grazing intensities, herbivory negatively affected reproductive performance, including the number of flowers, the number of pollen grains per flower, the number of ripe seeds and the rate of pod-set in host plants. These results indicate that there are trade-offs among vegetative and reproductive and defensive organs. Compared with male reproduction, female reproductive performance was less sensitive to herbivory and grazing intensity. Moreover, pollen grains from heavily browsed plants seemed to be less likely to sire pods and ripe seeds than those from unbrowsed plants, indicating that herbivory not only decreased pollen production, but also adversely affected pollen performance.

Open Access
In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution