This article discusses biblical chosenness and the Chinese concept of zhiji in a comparative reading of the two prominent stories that represent the relevant concepts in each tradition. The two concepts share a similar structure, cause a similar passion for total devotion, deal with similar problems caused by the paradox of obedience, and solve the dilemma by applying the paradox of probability with its three rules. Through this discussion I wish to explore possible answers to the Akedah question raised by Franz Kafka: Can we understand Akedah without God?
This paper discusses two concepts of the Middle Way: The Rabbinic Derech HaEmtza and the Confucian Zhongyong. The two concepts are similar to Aristotelian Mean in many ways but also differ from it in that they tend to move away from a fixed middle point. Given their similarities, the concepts are explored in two parts: Part One reveals a clear connection between the Golden Mean and the Golden Rule by a comparative reading of two main texts on the Middle Way; i.e., Pirki Avoth 2:1 and the first part of Zhongyong. Part Two discusses different approaches of the two traditions towards the Middle Way based on additional classical texts from the two traditions. While Confucianism tends to view this notion as manifest in internal feelings and virtues, Rabbinic Judaism attaches it more to concrete actions.
An empirical study of the 2001–2002 data from 356 Chinese companies listed in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges indicates that within the social context of China the characteristics of a firm’s top management team have a different impact on firm performance from those of foreign countries. Also, the tenure heterogeneity and functional experience heterogeneity of the top management team are inversely related to firm performance. This paper analyzes and discusses the findings in detail and points out areas for future research.
This article examines whether ‘trial and error’ is an effective approach to the design of regulations for China’s emission-trading pilot programs. These pilots are designed and operated at local levels for the purpose of testing regulatory design and implementation, with the hope that a national scheme will be built on these experiences. Through an examination of China’s involvement in the Clean Development Mechanism, design and operating principles for emission trading, and China’s regulatory and institutional framework for emission reductions, this article argues that the trial-and-error approach helps the regulatory design of local pilot programs to be adaptive to local circumstances. Such circumstances include local laws, institutional capacities, and developmental priorities. But trial and error also has shortcomings, namely in its capacity to mediate the competing demands of environmental sustainability, commercial viability, financial integrity, and political legitimacy. This article contains lessons for the construction of China’s national emission-trading scheme.
This article analyses Chinese traditional evidence theories that have evolved over a long period of time, to explore which theory, between objectivity and relevancy, best represents the basic attribute and logical thread of evidence. These theories are considered in the context of issues arising in evidential adjudication, including: the “Mirror of Evidence,” truth, the probability of proof standard, the choice between a notion of pursuing 100-percent certainty in adjudication and that wrongful acquittals are better than wrongful convictions, and the statutory proof doctrine comparedwith the system of free proof. Finally, the article presents the framework of and methods for drafting provisions of procedural evidence of the People’s Court.
Mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) purified from 25 samples of 6 species of macaques, Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. arctoides, M. nemestrina, M. assamensis and M. thibetana, were analyzed to study the phyletic relationships among the species. A total of 36-46 sites was observed in each sample. By combining the cleavage patterns each of the endonucleases, the 25 samples were classified into 11 restriction types. When data on M. fuscata and M. cyclopis collected by other authors were added to our own, the resultant molecular phylogenetic trees indicated that the 8 species may be divided into 4 groups: M. mulatta, M. fuscata, M. cyclopis and M. fascicularis; M. arctoides; (3) M. nemestrina; (4) M. assamensis and M. thibetana. Our results suggest that within both the fascicularis and sinica groups genetic distances are small between members and that the status of the species within the groups may require further investigation.