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Author: Xu Zhang


In the balanced development of compulsory education in China, the largest cities act as pioneers. A survey conducted by the 21st Century Education Research Institute on the balanced development of compulsory education in 19 metropolises shows that the level of the public’s satisfaction with compulsory education improved significantly over the last five years, with the satisfaction rate rising by more than 10% in most cities. Significant progress has been achieved in narrowing the gap among schools and in enforcing strict governance over placement, with Beijing ranking first in terms of rise in level of satisfaction with the governance of placement. A large number of students are enrolled in a school close to home, but still not at the level required by government policies. At the same time, students’ satisfaction with course loads is rather low. The level of migrant children’s satisfaction with education in major cities is declining.

In: Chinese Research Perspectives on Educational Development, Volume 5
Author: Xu Zhang


As the most vulnerable part in the school system, rural small-scale schools’ construction and development is crucial to the realization of education equality and the promotion of social justice. Among others, construction of teaching staff (师资队伍 建设) is the key to promote the development of rural small-scale schools. The key to rebuild the confidence of rural small-scale schools and reform their educational ecology (教育生态) lies in holding a solid understanding of the obstacles facing construction of teaching staff as well as reconstructing teaching staff in rural small-scale schools according to local conditions and capabilities.

In: Chinese Research Perspectives on Educational Development, Volume 4
Authors: Juan Xu and Zhongheng Zhang

J O U R N A L O F C H I N E S E O V E R S E A S | V 3 N 1 1 4 7 Chinese Graduate Students’ Adaptation to Learning in America: A Cultural Perspective Z H O N G H E N G Z H A N G a n d J U A N X U Introduction I T H A S B E E N A C O M M O N PH E N O M E N O N for large numbers of foreign students to study

In: Journal of Chinese Overseas
Authors: Hao Zhang and Ping Xu

This article examines whether ‘trial and error’ is an effective approach to the design of regulations for China’s emission-trading pilot programs. These pilots are designed and operated at local levels for the purpose of testing regulatory design and implementation, with the hope that a national scheme will be built on these experiences. Through an examination of China’s involvement in the Clean Development Mechanism, design and operating principles for emission trading, and China’s regulatory and institutional framework for emission reductions, this article argues that the trial-and-error approach helps the regulatory design of local pilot programs to be adaptive to local circumstances. Such circumstances include local laws, institutional capacities, and developmental priorities. But trial and error also has shortcomings, namely in its capacity to mediate the competing demands of environmental sustainability, commercial viability, financial integrity, and political legitimacy. This article contains lessons for the construction of China’s national emission-trading scheme.

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In: Climate Law
In: China and the World
In: Chinese Research Perspectives on Educational Development, Volume 1
Authors: Zhang Da-jun and Xu Xing-chun

In order to better understand the relationship between educational psychology research and educational reform, this essay reviews the development of educational psychology studies in the last 20 years in China. The study shows that: (1) Rapid development has been made in the areas of establishing discipline systems; (2) Research fields have been expanded and research directions have been localized; (3) The theoretical basis for quality education has been derived from education psychology studies; (4) The psychological foundation for curriculum reform and instruction has been implemented, and (5) China has committed to serve and expand current educational practices.

In: Frontiers of Education in China