Robert Beckman and Zhen Sun
The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (unclos) is widely viewed as a “constitutive” instrument that provides a legal framework that is being filled in, rounded out and complemented by existing and subsequently enacted international agreements and customary international law. The International Maritime Organization (imo) is the preeminent international organization with competence to establish international rules and standards for the safety, security and environmental performance of international shipping. In other words, on matters relating to international shipping, unclos outlines the rights and obligations of States parties in various maritime zones that must be exercised and fulfilled through implementation instruments under the auspices of imo.
This article will examine and discuss the relationship between unclos and imo instruments. First, it will provide an overview of imo, including its historical background, its mandates and structure, and the major instruments that are under its auspices. It will then look at the relationship between unclos and imo, and discuss how imo and its instruments have been incorporated into unclos. Furthermore, it will discuss the role of imo and its instruments in assisting States to exercise their rights and fulfil their obligations under unclos.
Zhen Sun and Robert Beckman
Robert C Beckman and Zhen Sun
Gaps and Challenges
Edited by Robert C. Beckman, Millicent McCreath, J. Ashley Roach and Zhen Sun
Zhen Xu, Yong-Qiang Zhao, Dong-Jing Yang, Hou-Jun Sun, Cheng-Ling Zhang and Yi-Ping Xie
Potato rot nematode (Ditylenchus destructor) is one of the most damaging pests of sweet potato in the northern region of China. Glasshouse and field experiments were conducted to explore the main invasion route used by potato rot nematodes during infection of sweet potato plants. The nematode’s host location behaviour was also investigated. Results suggested that substantial yield losses of sweet potato caused by D. destructor parasitism depend upon the existence of wounds on seedling roots. Therefore, reducing the number of nematodes that invade through such wounds would be an effective control method. We found that root exudates and extracts from underground stems of both resistant (cv. Zhenghong 22) and susceptible (cv. Lizixiang) sweet potato cultivars attracted potato rot nematodes. In addition, a strong repellent effect of latex against these nematodes was observed in both cultivars. Interestingly, octadecyl-(Z)-p-coumarate, a component of sweet potato latex, acted as a repellent for potato rot nematodes, while hexadecyl- and eicosyl-(Z)-p-coumarates did not. These findings provide a basis for understanding the mechanism underlying the host location behaviour of potato rot nematodes and can help in designing new nematode control methods.