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  • Author or Editor: Zhihui Wu x
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Based on data collected from a field survey of 9,448 rural students at the compulsory education stage from 10 provinces (municipalities), national statistical data, and the results of 239 public opinion polls about left-behind children, this paper provides an overview of the overall situation of and problems facing rural left-behind children. Reasons for the plight of these left-behind children include the absence of adult supervision, a lack of access to formal education, inadequacy of family affection, and the harsh environment in rural areas. This paper also makes suggestions for strengthening family responsibilities, mobilizing the participation of social organiza-tions, innovating rural educational curricula, and reinforcing rural social governance.

In: Chinese Research Perspectives on Educational Development, Volume 5


Ground parenchyma cells play a crucial role in the growth and the mechanical properties of bamboo plants. Investigation of the morphology of ground parenchyma cells is essential for understanding the physiological functions and mechanical properties of these cells. This study aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of bamboo ground parenchyma cells and provide a qualitative and quantitative basis for the more effective utilization of bamboo. To do this, the morphology of ground parenchyma cells in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) was studied using light microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy. Results show that various geometric shapes of ground parenchyma cells were observed, including nearly circular, square, long, oval, and irregular shapes. Cell walls of both long and short parenchyma cells exhibited primary wall thickening and secondary wall thickening, resulting in a primary pit field and simple pits. Most long cells were strip-shaped (L/W = 2.52), while most short cells were short and wide (L/W = 0.59). The proportion of long cells was 11 times greater than that of short cells. Most long cells were filled with starch grains, and some short cells also occasionally had starch grains. These findings allowed the first construction of the three-dimensional structure of parenchyma cells.

In: IAWA Journal