Zhiwei Liu and Göran Nordlander


The archaic cynipoid family Ibaliidae is revised. All described taxa are included in a checklist, and keys to valid taxa are presented. Host records include larvae of several woodwasp species (Siricidae: Siricinae and Tremicinae). Ibaliidae is considered to include the East Asian genus Heteribalia Sakagami, with five valid species, and the mainly Holarctic genus Ibalia Latreille, with 13 valid species, seven in the subgenus Ibalia and six in the subgenus Tremibalia. Heteribalia aureopilosa Maa, 1949 and H. subtilis Maa, 1949 are raised from subspecies to species level. Ibalia (T.) hunanica sp. n., is described from Oriental China. Three morphs of I. (T.) anceps, differing in wing colour pattern, are recognized, and distribution records of these morphs in North America are mapped. I. scalpellator Westwood, 1837 is synonymized with I. anceps Say, 1824; I. takaehihoi Yasumatsu, 1937 with I. jakowlewi Jacobson, 1899; I.fulviceras Yang, 1991 with I. ornata Belizin, 1968; and I. yunshae Yang et Liu,1992 with I. rufipes drewseni Borries, 1891. Lectotypes are designated for I. picea Matsumura, 1912 (syn. of I. leucospoides (Hochenwarth, 1785)) and for I. japonica Matsumura, 1912.

Lars Vilhelmsen, Stephan M. Blank, Zhiwei Liu and David R. Smith

The genus Orussus is reviewed, with primary focus on taxa from the Oriental Region; a revised key to the world species is presented. The newly described species are analysed with a comprehensive morphological data set encompassing the entire family. The discovery of the new species corroborates the earlier proposed hypothesis that Orussus originated in the Oriental Region. The following new species are described: O. areolatus Blank & Vilhelmsen from Morocco, O. hanumanus Vilhelmsen & Blank from India (described for O. decoomani auct.), O. punctulatissimus Blank & Vilhelmsen from Malaysia, and O. zhui Vilhelmsen, Liu, Smith & Blank from China. Currently O. decoomani Maa, 1950 from Vietnam cannot be interpreted properly and is considered a species inquirenda. Orussus mikagei Togashi, 2008 is proposed as a new synonym of O. rufipes Tsuneki, 1963.

Xiao-Hui Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Yin Pang, Cheng-Yuan Su and Dao-Hong Zhu

Three new species of the tribe Synergini (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), i.e., Lithosaphonecrus arcoverticus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. Lithosaphonecrus decarinatus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. and Saphonecrus emarginatus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. are described from Hunan, China. The three species have emerged from the same galls collected on Lithocarpus glaber (Thunb.) in December, June, and April, respectively. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Synergini based on mtDNA COI and rRNA 28S D2 genes resolved two independent monophyletic clades exclusively associated with Lithocarpus plant hosts, i.e., the genus Lithosaphonecus and the lithocarpii species complex of Saphonecrus. The three species each have a sister relationship with a congener in Taiwan, an island off the southeastern coast of continental China. This recurrent disjunct distribution and relatively low COI sequence variation between the sister species in each species pair are considered attributable to the formation of the Taiwan Strait in Holocene ca 10,000 years ago. We also discussed the possible speciation mechanism for Lithosaphonecrus due to seasonality and topography in subtropical China. Finally, we addressed the need for conservation consideration in urbanization planning.

Sheng Xing Long, Yang Yang, Ping Hua Xia, Chuan Chen, Zhi Wei Liu, Jian Rong Ma, Xian Dong, Tian Rogn He and Guo Yun

Metal concentrations in large zooplankton from three karst reservoirs with different eutrophic status (Hongfeng Lake reservoir, Baihua Lake reservoir, and Aha reservoir) in Guizhou Province, China, were investigated. Samples of zooplankton were collected in 2014 and 2015. It was found that accumulation of metals in zooplankton was significantly correlated with Chl-a (chlorophyll a), which can be attributed to the characteristic distribution of species of phytoplankton. A low concentration of metals in water means a higher bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and a stronger transfer to zooplankton via the trophic chain, and hence a higher ecological risk. Zooplankton in the eutrophic Aha reservoir had lower concentrations of Fe (mean 1264.25 mg/kg) than in Hongfeng (mean 2566.07 mg/kg) and Baihua (2246.87 mg/kg) in 2014-2015, because of high TP (Total Phosphorus) concentration, which has an affinity with suspended particles matter. A high level of Cd (mean 0.62 mg/kg) was found in Hongfeng. This study shows that zooplankton in the eutrophic Aha reservoir had higher concentrations of metals (Mn, mean 590.47 mg/kg; Pb, mean 7.6 mg/kg; Cr, mean 26.31 mg/kg; Ni, mean 8.54 mg/kg; Zn, mean 225.73 mg/kg; and Cu, mean 238.33 mg/kg) than in the mesotrophic Hongfeng and Baihua reservoirs. Thus, the eutrophic status was significantly, positively correlated with high concentrations of metals in the zooplankton, as also observed in other reservoir studies.