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To Confine the Surging Tide from the Outside World, 1901–1937
In this book, Ying Zhou argues that educational reform filled a critical role in bridging the precarious gap between democratic ideals and political realities in late Qing and Republican China, where institutional change in education and the cultivation of a qualified citizenry were two sides of the same coin in the development of democratic education.

Through a multi-level analysis of the (re)arrangements of national education and teachings of citizenship, Zhou unravels the complex political and educational nexus in China between 1901–1937, where the hope of education was to bring both political modernity and social progress.

There is a lack of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of the work–family interface on employees’ behaviors while taking into consideration of cultural values in developing countries. This study investigates the impact of work-to-family enrichment on employees’ voice behavior by focusing on the moderating role of modernity in a Chinese setting. Results from a survey of 230 Chinese married managers indicate that work-to-family enrichment positively influences voice behavior. In addition, the enrichment-voice relationship is weaker when modernity is high rather than low. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications for human resource management.

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China


A visual prosthesis provides usable visual information to the patient in the form of phosphenes, that is, punctate photic sensations seen after electrical stimulation. Stimulation via different electrodes results in phosphenes in different positions within the visual field. Simulation studies can provide data on the possible limitations of prosthetic stimulation. We used a head mounted screen to monocularly present constant or flickering light spots of different sizes, or luminance to normally sighted subjects. Subjects were asked to judge the location of the spots using a polar coordinate tactile guide; positioning average error and dispersion were analyzed. With the increase of eccentricity, the positioning average error and dispersion were also increased. The performances under large, stable and high luminance conditions were better than that under small, flickering and low luminance conditions, respectively. Repeated training sessions were shown to significantly improve the positioning performance.

In: Seeing and Perceiving

Aphelenchoides besseyi is an obligate parasite that often causes white-tip symptoms in rice plants. The nematode exhibits ectoparasitic behaviour with its infection rate matching the development of rice plants. Few studies have analysed how A. besseyi migration is influenced by chemical and host factors. Here, we focused on the effects of auxins on nematode migration and propagation. Exposure of A. besseyi to an auxin gradient created by a Pluronic F-127 gel resulted in nematode aggregation at the highest auxin concentration tested, 100 μm. Inoculation on the susceptible cv. Ningjing1 produced more nematodes than on the resistant rice cv. Tetep, which correlated with their endogenous auxin levels. Young panicles treated with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid produced more grains and nematodes, whereas plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, led to fewer nematodes in the seeds. In addition, A. besseyi rarely migrated and multiplied in the plants of the male sterile rice cv. Zhenshan97A, which had insufficient auxin level in pollen and thus could not generate any grains in most panicles. However, large numbers of nematodes were observed in seeds of cv. Zhenshan97A that had received pollens from the maintainer cv. Zhenshan97B. The results indicate that auxin might play a key role in the migration and propagation of A. besseyi.

In: Nematology

Brain size varies dramatically between vertebrate species. Two prominent adaptive hypotheses – the Cognitive Buffer Hypothesis (CBH) and the Expensive Brain Hypothesis (EBH) – have been proposed to explain brain size evolution. The CBH assumes that brain size should increase with seasonality, as the cognitive benefits of a larger brain should help overcoming periods of food scarcity via, for example, increased behavioral flexibility. Alternatively, the EBH states that brain size should decrease with seasonality because a smaller brain confers energetic benefits in periods of food scarcity. Here, to test the two adaptive hypotheses by studying the effects of variation in temperature and growth season on variations in overall brain size and the size of specific brain regions (viz. olfactory nerves, olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum) among Hylarana guentheri populations. Inconsistent with the predictions of both the EBH and the CBH, variation in temperature and growth season did not exhibit correlations with overall brain size and the size of brain regions across populations. Hence, our data do not provide support for either the EBH or the CBH to explain brain size variation in H. guentheri. Furthermore, brain size variation did not differ between males and females in this species. Our findings suggest that both the variation in temperature and growth season did not shape the variation in brain size in H. guentheri.

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In: Animal Biology