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Buddhist arts flourished in unprecedented manner in both Chinese and non-Chinese dynasties. The center for cave sculpture moved to the southwest, where Anyue and Dazu are emblematic. In Dunhuang, the Xi Xia cave murals are particularly remarkable. In the Song, painters in local monasteries were numerous, while the Liao and Jin were distinguished by images in stupas and caves. Zhang Shengwen was a famous painter of the Dali kingdom. Temples, pagodas, and caves were built and decorated in Tibet, and in Hangzhou and the Yuan capital Tibetan styles merged with Chinese, the esoteric with the exoteric.

In: Modern Chinese Religion I (2 vols.)