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difference between history and memory: “Memory is history seen through affect. And since affect is subjective, it is difficult to examine the claims of memory in the same way as we examine the claims of history. History is a discipline. We learn and teach its rules and its limits. Memory is a faculty. We

In: War and Memorials

be cited in greater detail: Beneath that hatred hides a jealousy the less worthy experience at the sight of the remarkable efficiency of the Germans. … With all certainty … this antipathy is not conscious, but rather deeply embedded in the unconscious , meaning that many will disown subjectively

In: Science embattled

declaration of their subjectivity. Not without reason, they perceived assertions about Polish lands and people put forth by others without consultation as expressions of scientific imperialism. The professional flaws of the Handbuch gave the reviewers an opportunity to conduct an especially spectacular

In: Science embattled

scholastics and the natural lawyers refused this view. According to Lessius, objective factors (such as the matter and the nature of the promise) and subjective factors are equally important to determine the moral or legal effects of the promises. Other theologians, spearheaded by Molina, relied on the

In: Lutheran Theology and Contract Law in Early Modern Germany (ca. 1520-1720)

the medieval debates among canonists and theologians, 70 and in particular seem to reveal the influence of Gerson. 71 Gerson had defined the term ius in a subjective sense as a facultas according to the right reason, or according to primary justice. 72 Melanchthon uses the term facultas in

In: Lutheran Theology and Contract Law in Early Modern Germany (ca. 1520-1720)

that at least there must be the intention to make restitution, because otherwise there is no contrition and no remission of sin. 235 It must be an objective impossibility and not a subjective impossibility. Second, restitution is not necessary if the creditor decides for the remission of debt

In: Lutheran Theology and Contract Law in Early Modern Germany (ca. 1520-1720)