planned in advance. But even though the testimonies reflect beliefs that later were proved false, they provide insight into the subjective perceptions of Jews at the time. Popular memory and ritualized commemoration of the Kristallnacht tend to be dominated by images of burning synagogues and vandalized
books’ treatment of RPB 101 based on the same set of material: post-war criminal investigations, and war-time photographs depicting scenes deemed relevant for their respective argument. “Deemed” marks an important qualification, beyond the inherent subjectivity of an author’s source selection and
least one jewish parent’ (father or mother), while the halacha accept only the mother. The addition ‘non-religious’ is only ‘defined’ according to a subjective self-definition as a result of one choice out of five possibilities (non-practising, not religious but accepting some traditions, liberal
that shares it. 14 Jay Winter also highlights the difference between history and memory: “Memory is history seen through affect. And since affect is subjective, it is difficult to examine the claims of memory in the same way as we examine the claims of history. History is a discipline. We learn and
scholars from Germany to investigate the matter. 8 It suggests that Calmeyer had something to do with it, but this remained far from clear except that Presser quite subjectively expressed his loathing with what he read in these “Portuguese sources”: It is in fact disgusting literature for anyone who knows
—combined decorative features and subjective responses to nature. By the end of the century, these works belonged to more than folk art revival; they had birthed a flexible new form of Russian art nouveau or stil’ modern .
Figure 3 Mikhail Vrubel, “Sirin” majolica bench at Abramtsevo, 1910s, detail. Photo
subjects came to be limited by their subjectivation (Central Committee 1972a : 19–20). In the course of the 1970s, the ad hoc policy on social rights was distilled into an official doctrine ( Varov 1971 ; Lilov 1977 ; Desev 1980 ). The doctrine was mapped out by the following lines of argument: 1