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Post-Communist Democratisation in Lithuania

Elites, parties, and youth political organisations. 1988-2001

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Diana Janušauskienė

Post-Communist Democratisation in Lithuania: Elites, Parties, and Youth Political Organisations. 1988 – 2001 explains post-communist changes in Lithuania. The transformation of political party system, political elites and youth political organisations in Lithuania are examined in light of democratisation in other post-communist countries. By linking theories of democratisation and elites to actual events, the book provides an analytical framework for interpreting political regime change and development in Lithuania. The book is based on five assumptions: (1) democratisation in Lithuania belongs to a ‘Western type’ of democratic development; (2) elites and nationalism were the major forces in modernisation; (3) Lithuanian elites have used the favourable conditions of perestroika and were the major actors in regime transformation; (4) the crop of political elites in Lithuania undergoes a generational change, and youth political organisations are very important in this process as they serve as schools for future politicians; and (5) class theory is less useful than elite theory when analysing the process of democratisation in Lithuania.

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Misako Nemoto

very point from where, as Claude Lefort has put it, “the boundaries between “interior” and “exterior”, between personal existence and politics vanish”. 8 4 Towards a Democratization of the Self One of the peculiarities of Taken Captive is that although it is a war narrative, war figures only briefly

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Hanne Abildgaard

cultural role of the working class, gradually turned into widely ramified discussions of “social art”, democratisation and popular appeal, involving a wide range of artists and opinion-makers as well as

A cat’s lick

Democratisation and minority communities in the post-Soviet Baltic

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Timofey Agarin

The research on Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has pointed out some controversial social and political developments since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Crucially, there is a discrepancy between the governments’ commitment to creating democratic political regimes, to ensuring harmonious social relations and to accommodating the ethno-cultural diversity of the resident communities. In reflecting on the legacies of the Soviet past, the book addresses the role non-titular populations have played in the process of democratisation and the relation between the states, societies and minorities in the post-Soviet Baltic states. The argument proceeds along three lines. Firstly, the book examines the institutional dimension of democratisation in the region, thereby addressing the processes of state- and nation-building as reflected in various policy-developments. Secondly, it compares the impact of ethno-cultural diversity on the development of the respective Baltic nation-states. The discussion makes clear that the framework of Baltic political communities was designed to suit the interests of the titular groups and thus resulted in the marginalisation of the minority communities. Thirdly, the book assesses the participation of minority communities in the development, criticism and improvement of state institutions and policies since independence. The analysis points out that, two decades after independence, the post-Soviet Baltic states and societies are seen by many members of the majority groups as primarily serving the interests of their ethnic community. In this situation, the members of the non-titular communities need to adapt to the majorities’ perceptions in order to benefit from the achievements of democratisation.

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Puja Kapai

The coexistence of cultural and religious minorities in liberal democratic systems presents various challenges given the complexities that inhere in the just management of a diverse populace. Minorities living in these communities suffer unequal outcomes, hardships and exclusion on various accounts. This is particularly so where the equal application of the law to all individuals results in injustice when minority needs remain unaccounted for. These circumstances have forced a critical review of the institutional mechanisms which accompany governance and the visions of justice they support. Various theories have been developed to accommodate multiculturalism and address these complexities. Liberal theorists have sought to predicate rights on the core principles of the common good and individual autonomy whilst others have debated the liberal’s dilemma. Theorists of multiculturalism have offered a communitarian critique to liberalism, suggesting variegated group rights and models of accommodation. Others, however, have pointed to the critical failures of multiculturalism. This chapter critiques some of the recent developments in discourse on accommodative mechanisms, citizenship theory and minority rights. Given the failings of existing models, it argues that deliberative mechanisms customised by the doctrine of substantive equality are better able to provide an inclusive and just political framework. The doctrine of substantive equality serves to account for the gaps in existing democratic and citizenship theories. It is an indispensable tool in just government given the state of identity politics, the history of oppression, imperialism and other marginalisations experienced by minority communities. Implementing the doctrine in the deliberative context would go a long way towards fostering minority participation and inculcating civic responsibility to create a new vision for citizenship and the dispensation of justice. The chapter concludes with a call for a renewed political discourse to eliminate obstacles to a consensus-building model of democratic deliberation that caters to multiculturalism and diversity.

Philosophy and Democracy in intercultural Perspective / Philosophie et démocratie en perspective interculturelle

Two Conferences of Western and African Philosophers at Vienna and at Rotterdam / Deux conférences des philosophes d’Ouest et d’Afrique à Vienne et à Rotterdam

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Edited by Heinz Kimmerle and Franz M. Wimmer

For the time being African philosophy is treated regularly in research and in teaching at two European scientific institutions: at the University of Vienna and at Erasmus University Rotterdam. In October 1993 there have been held two conferences of Western and African philosophers at both universities. Eleven African and nine Western scholars participated as speakers in these conferences. Four African speakers gave lectures at the Vienna and at the Rotterdam conference. The Vienna conference dealt with general questions of postcolonial philosophy in Africa. The conference at Rotterdam focused on the processes of democratization in African countries since 1989. This volume contains the papers of both conferences.

En ce moment la philosophie Africaine est traité regulièrement dans les recherches et dans l'enseignement à deux instituts scientifiques Européens: à l'Université de Vienne et à l'Université Erasme de Rotterdam. En Octobre 1993 deux conférences de philosophes Occidentals et Africains ont été organisé aux deux universités. Onze savants Africans et neuf savants Occidentals ont participé à ces deux conférences. Quatre savants Africains ont présenté des communications à tous les deux conférences de Vienne et de Rotterdam. La conférence Viennoise s'occupait de questions générales de la philosophie postcoloniale en Afrique. La conférence de Rotterdam focusait aux procès de démocratisation dans des pays africains depuis 1989. Se trouvent en ce volume les contributions à les deux conférences.