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Series:

David Speetzen

Abstract:

This article applies the traditional just war criteria of just cause, necessity, and proportionality to the use of force by police officers. After describing the origins and structure of the just war perspective, it details how those core criteria can be used to construct a normative account of police force, which, in turn, can be used to diagnose a variety of misconceptions that have helped shape, and continue to shape public discourse about police violence in the United States. On the account presented here, the use of force by police officers is justified if and only if the level of force used is necessary to secure compliance with a legal command (or in defense of self or others), and will not result in more harm than good all things considered. What becomes apparent is that many common beliefs and attitudes about police force are mistaken—e.g., that a suspect’s criminality, disrespectful behavior, or even use of lethal force automatically renders him liable to police force, or that police force is proportionate so long the amount of force used does not grossly exceed that used by the suspect. It concludes that, relative to the appropriate ethical standards, much if not most police force used at present is unjustified.

Series:

Peter Durno Murray

there is a need to direct this twofold will to redeem the activities of soul and spirit in a complex Dionysian process of twisting free from the ambiguity felt towards the value of life inherited from a belief in transcendence. This process occurs as an agonal relationship with a philosophical companion

Series:

Todd Jones

which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” 4 Quite a lot folded into one concept! “Culture” also seems to refer both to what is produced by certain social processes (e.g., “French culture is full of femme

Series:

Fuat Gursozlu

that the use of force by police officers is justified if, and only if, the level of force used is necessary to secure compliance with a legal command, and will not result in more harm than good. Once we adopt Speetzen’s normative account, we recognize that “many common beliefs and attitudes about

Series:

Peter Durno Murray

reach back with their truthfulness and straightforwardness and teach that affirmation is possible, despite this involving removing the philosophical cornerstone from the residual belief in transcendent redemption. The teaching is required to combat those who contend that ‘All is in vain’, the aware or

Series:

Sanjay Lal

toward “radicals” given the widespread belief that such individuals threaten our lives. The problem though for this argument is that, first, empirically it is clear that whenever violence has been collectively resorted to as a response to perceived threats from others, it has been virtually impossible to

Series:

Peter Durno Murray

preserved in repressive culture, and an arena in which the disguised belief in the value of nature fights against the shadows of god. 8 Perhaps the veils of science and reason allowed this faith to be preserved. In contrast, Zarathustra insists that his fate is entwined with ‘wandering’ and ‘the climbing

The Early History of Embodied Cognition 1740-1920

The Lebenskraft-Debate and Radical Reality in German Science, Music, and Literature

Series:

Edited by John A. McCarthy

This pioneering book evaluates the early history of embodied cognition. It explores for the first time the life-force ( Lebenskraft) debate in Germany, which was manifest in philosophical reflection, medical treatise, scientific experimentation, theoretical physics, aesthetic theory, and literary practice esp. 1740-1920. The history of vitalism is considered in the context of contemporary discourses on radical reality (or deep naturalism). We ask how animate matter and cognition arise and are maintained through agent-environment dynamics (Whitehead) or performance (Pickering). This book adopts a nonrepresentational approach to studying perception, action, and cognition, which Anthony Chemero designated radical embodied cognitive science. From early physiology to psychoanalysis, from the microbiome to memetics, appreciation of body and mind as symbiotically interconnected with external reality has steadily increased. Leading critics explore here resonances of body, mind, and environment in medical history (Reil, Hahnemann, Hirschfeld), science (Haller, Goethe, Ritter, Darwin, L. Büchner), musical aesthetics (E.T.A. Hoffmann, Wagner), folklore (Grimm), intersex autobiography (Baer), and stories of crime and aberration (Nordau, Döblin). Science and literature both prove to be continually emergent cultures in the quest for understanding and identity. This book will appeal to intertextual readers curious to know how we come to be who we are and, ultimately, how the Anthropocene came to be.

Series:

Lloyd Steffen

largely unnoticed or may rise to consciousness as actions deemed allowable—not desired but also “not wrong”—within a larger framework of justification. As a meaningful framework within which violence can be justified, cultural violence is expressed in all manner of cultural practices, beliefs, attitudes

Series:

William C. Gay

‘-isms,’ such as sexism and racism, in so far as it is language rather than gender or race which is the crucial criterion in the beliefs and structure which result in unequal power and resource allocation.” 42 He continues, “ Linguicism involves representation of the dominant language, to which