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Edited by Dobrota Pucherova and Robert Gafrik

This collective monograph analyzes post-1989 Central and Eastern Europe through the paradigm of postcoloniality. Based on the assumption that both Western and Soviet imperialism emerged from European modernity, the book is a contribution to the development of a global postcolonial discourse based on a more extensive and nuanced geohistorical comparativism. It suggests that the inclusion of East-Central Europe in European identity might help resolve postcolonialism’s difficulties in coming to terms with both postcolonial and neo-colonial dimensions of contemporary Europe. Analyzing post-communist identity reconstructions under the impact of transformative political, economic and cultural experiences such as changes in perception of time and space (landscapes, cityscapes), migration and displacement, collective memory and trauma, objectifying gaze, cultural self-colonization, and language as a form of power, the book facilitates a mutually productive dialogue between postcolonialism and post-communism. Together the studies map the rich terrain of contemporary East-Central European creative writing and visual art, the latter highlighted through accompanying illustrations.

The Totalitarian Paradigm after the End of Communism

Towards a Theoretical Reassessment

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Edited by Achim Siegel

Concepts of totalitarianism have undergone an academic revival in recent years, particularly since the breakdown of communist systems in Europe in 1989-91: the totalitarian paradigm, so it seems to many scholars today, had been discarded prematurely in the heat of the Cold War. The demise of communism as a social system is, however, not only an important cause of the recurring attractiveness of the totalitarian paradigm, but provides at the same time new evidence and, correspondingly, new problems of explanation for all approaches in communist studies and totalitarianism theory in particular.
This book contains articles by philosophers, social scientists and historians who reassess the validity of the totalitarian approach in the light of the recent historical developments in Eastern Europe. A first group of authors focus on the analytical usefulness and explanatory power of classic concepts of totalitarianism after having observed the failed reforms of the Gorbachev-era and the collapse of Europe's communist systems in 1989-91. In these contributions the totalitarian paradigm is contrasted with other approaches with respect to cognitive power as well as normative implications. In the second group of contributions the focus is on the reassessment of methodological and theoretical problems of the classic concepts of totalitarianism. The authors attempt to reinterpret the classic concepts so as to meet the objections which have been put forward against those concepts during the last decades.
The study thereby traces some of the intellectual roots of the totalitarian paradigm that precede the outbreak of the Cold War, such as the work of Sigmund Neumann and Franz Borkenau. It also focuses on the most famous authors in the field: Hannah Arendt and Carl Joachim Friedrich. In addition it discusses theorists of totalitarianism like Juan Linz, whose contributions to totalitarianism theory have too often been overlooked.

Marxism and Communism

Posthumous Reflections on Politics, Society, and Law

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Edited by Martin Krygier

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Piotr Jaroszyński and Hugh McDonald

surprising that Adorno is not equally engaged in discussing the far greater crimes of Communism, for instance, the victims of Stalinist terror who died by the millions in prisons, camps, and in mines. 22 Adorno’s criticism of evil is selective, but his criticism of metaphysics is intentionally total. Neither

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Piotr Jaroszyński

Translator Hugh McDonald

surprising that Adorno is not equally engaged in discussing the far greater crimes of Communism, for instance, the victims of Stalinist terror who died by the millions in prisons, camps, and in mines. 22 Adorno’s criticism of evil is selective, but his criticism of metaphysics is intentionally total. Neither

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Conny Mithander

Abstract

In comparison with many other European countries, Sweden constitutes a special case when dealing with Europe’s dark past. Each country has a characteristic feature in this respect, but Sweden differs in several ways. A distinctive feature is that in the 1990s Sweden assumed a great guilt regarding the Holocaust, although Sweden’s guilt is not as great when compared with other countries. Another distinctive feature about Sweden is that Communismand its criminal history are very sensitive issues, particularly among intellectuals, despite the lack of concrete experience of Communism. In Sweden, as well as in most other countries, there is widespread consensus about Nazi evil, both as ideology and practice. The crimes of Communism are, however, a minefield where the debaters promptly take on dogmatic ideological outlooks. Consequently, in Sweden it is not possible to agree about the role of Communism in the country’s memory politics. This asymmetry in Swedish memory politics is obvious in the reactions to the government’s Living History project and its information campaigns about the crimes of Communism and Nazism. The educational campaign about Nazism (1997) didn’t cause any protests, while the information campaign about communism (2006) provoked ample dissension and ideological deadlocks.

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Edited by Maria Zadencka, Andrejs Plakans and Andreas Lawaty

The studies in East and Central European History Writing in Exile 1939-1989, all written by experts in the history of the region, give answers to the comprehensive question of how the experience of exile during the time of the Nazi and Communist totalitarianism influenced and still influences history writing and the historical consciousness both in the countries hosting exile historians, as well as in the home countries which these historians left.

The volume comprises difficult-to-access information about the organization and the work of historians exiled from the Baltic States, including Baltic Germans, Belorusia, Ukraine, and Poland. And it provides reflections on the intellectuals networking between their own national and the foreign traditions in the exile.

Contributors are: Olavi Arens, Mirosław Filipowicz, Jörg Hackmann, Volodymyr Kravchenko, Oleg Łatyszonek, Andreas Lawaty, Iveta Leitāne, Artur Mękarski, Andrzej Nowak, Gert von Pistohlkors, Andrejs Plakans, Toivo Raun, Rafał Stobiecki, Mirosław A. Supruniuk, Jaan Undusk, and Maria Zadencka.

World War II in Andreï Makine’s Historiographic Metafiction

‘No One Is Forgotten, Nothing Is Forgotten’

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Helena Duffy

Can it be ever possible to write about war in a work of fiction? asks a protagonist of one of Makine’s strongly metafictional and intensely historical novels. Helena Duffy’s World War II in Andreï Makine’s Historiographic Metafiction redirects this question at the Franco-Russian author’s fiction itself by investigating its portrayal of Soviet involvement in the struggle against Hitler. To write back into the history of the Great Fatherland War its unmourned victims — invalids, Jews, POWs, women or starving Leningraders — is the self-acknowledged ambition of a novelist committed to the postmodern empowerment of those hitherto silenced by dominant historiographies. Whether Makine succeeds at giving voice to those whose suffering jarred with the triumphalist narrative of the war concocted by Soviet authorities is the central concern of Duffy’s book.