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Cognition in Emotion

An Investigation through Experiences with Art

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Tone Roald

Emotions are essential for human existence, both lighting the way toward the brightest of achievements and setting the course into the darkness of suffering. Not surprisingly, then, emotion research is currently one of the hottest topics in the field of psychology. Yet to divine the nature of emotion is a complex and extensive task. In this book emotions are approached thought an exploration of the nature of cognition in emotion; the nature of thoughts in feelings. Different approaches to emotions are explored, from brain research to research at the level of experience, and it is argued that all approaches must seriously take into account the experiential dimension. A qualitative study of experiences with art is therefore presented, as emotions and cognition are often expressed in experiences with art. It is the first study of its kind. Descriptions of various affective phenomena are then given which have significant implications for contemporary debates about emotions, resolving several contemporary controversies.

Metaphors, Narratives, Emotions

Their Interplay and Impact

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Stefán Snævarr

This book argues that there is a complex logical and epistemological interplay between the concepts of metaphor, narrative, and emotions. They share a number of important similarities and connections. In the first place, all three are constituted by aspect-seeing, the seeing-as or perception of Gestalts. Secondly, all three are meaning-endowing devices, helping us to furnish our world with meaning. Thirdly, the threesome constitutes a trinity. Emotions have both a narrative and metaphoric structure, and we can analyse the concepts of metaphors and narratives partly in each other’s terms. Further, the concept of narratives can partly be analysed in the terms of emotions. And if emotions have both a narrative structure and a metaphoric one, then the concept of emotions must to some extent be analysable through the concepts of narratives and metaphors. But there is more. Metaphors (especially poetic ones) are important tools for the understanding of the tacit sides of emotions, perhaps because of the metaphoric structure of emotions. The notion that narrations can be tools for understanding emotions follows from two facts: narrations are devices for explanation and emotions have a narrative structure. Fourthly, the threesome has an impact on our rationality. It has become commonplace to say that emotions have a cognitive content, that narratives have an explanatory function, and that metaphors can perform cognitive functions. This book is the first attempt to articulate the implications that these new ways of seeing the three concepts entail for our concept of reason. The cognitive roles of the threesome suggest a richer notion of rationality than has traditionally been held, a rationality enlivened with metaphoric, narrative, and emotive qualities.

Christoph Jäger and Anne Bartsch

This paper explores the phenomenon of meta-emotions. Meta-emotions are emotions people have about their own emotions. We analyze the intentional structure of meta-emotions and show how psychological findings support our account. Acknowledgement of meta-emotions can elucidate a number of important issues in the philosophy of mind and, more specifically, the philosophy and psychology of emotions. Among them are (allegedly) ambivalent or paradoxical emotions, emotional communication, emotional self-regulation, privileged access failure for repressed emotions, and survivor guilt.

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Edited by Angelique Richardson

‘What is emotion?’ pondered the young Charles Darwin in his notebooks. How were the emotions to be placed in an evolutionary framework? And what light might they shed on human-animal continuities? These were among the questions Darwin explored in his research, assisted both by an acute sense of observation and an extraordinary capacity for fellow feeling, not only with humans but with all animal life. After Darwin: Animals, Emotions, and the Mind explores questions of mind, emotion and the moral sense which Darwin opened up through his research on the physical expression of emotions and the human–animal relation. It also examines the extent to which Darwin’s ideas were taken up by Victorian writers and popular culture, from George Eliot to the Daily News. Bringing together scholars from biology, literature, history, psychology, psychiatry and paediatrics, the volume provides an invaluable reassessment of Darwin’s contribution to a new understanding of the moral sense and emotional life, and considers the urgent scientific and ethical implications of his ideas today.

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Gabriela Salim Spagnol, Li Hui Ling and Li Li Min

are issues that are limited and often neglected. In this sense, the technique “Dialogue with emotions through mandalas” has been applied in order to promote higher awareness of emotions and coping with the disease. Dr. Ling developed the method called “Dialogue with emotions” with a reference to

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Jolie B. Kaytes

Dirty Wordsintegrates text and image and considers how the writing of poetry is a way to creatively envision the relationships among sentiment, scientific understanding, and landscape processes. Specifically, the essay looks at poems that use geomorphic keywords metaphorically to express and interpret everyday encounters. By extending geomorphological concepts to the realm of human emotion, the writing of the poems, and the poems themselves, become catalysts for looking at how scientific constructions might be more profoundly understood in terms of human experience, and vice versa. The paper discusses and illustrates two related categories of poetry, ' decompositions' and ' emotional reliefs'. It additionally considers how these poems, and the process of writing them, can be relevant to landscape architecture.

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Claire Heaney

This chapter aims to complicate the emerging picture of art as a possible source of emotional knowledge creation by investigating the complex relationship between ethics and aesthetics. J.M. Coetzee’s Disgrace, through a sustained engagement with the aesthetic ideology of the Romantic tradition, challenges the moral authority of literary inheritance, forcing the reader to confront the uncomfortable possibility that, rather than enlightening us, aesthetic engagement might instead provide a justifying framework for unethical attitudes and behaviour. I trace the cognitive path traversed by the novel’s central character, the intellectual David Lurie, as he is forced by a series of extreme personal experiences to reconsider the relationship of art to wider social structures. Initially an admirer of Romantic art, Lurie comes to recognize that its conceptual schema conceals a worldview that is ethically questionable. Paradoxically, however, the power of art is retained when Lurie uses it to uncover and express his newfound knowledge of the world and the self. I argue that Lurie’s story is a complex and ambiguous development from aesthetic ‘not-knowing’ and even ignorance towards a deeper emotional involvement with the surrounding world, one in which sympathy, emotion, and the imagination are viewed as valuable components of knowledge.

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Gabriela Salim Spagnol, Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Isilda Sueli Andreolli Mira de Assumpção, Li Hui Ling and Li Li Min

daily living with epilepsy and commonly evolve into behavioural changes (shame, insecurity, isolation) and greater difficulties in psychosocial adjustment. 16 In our study, these emotions were mostly related to the seizure, restrictions that epilepsy may have on daily activities and the prejudice one

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Breda Gray

Abstract

This chapter is concerned with identifying an ethical emotional grammar in the forging of feminist solidarities. While acknowledging the potential for the modern emotion of empathy to work in patronising and appropriative ways, the aim is to recuperate empathy’s more progressive, ethical and transformative moments. This discussion is located in the contemporary context of global capitalism which is identified in some accounts with post-emotionalism, social numbness, disconnection and the failure of empathy. Noting that the workings of empathy have always been haunted by its potential failure, it is argued that such precariousness can keep responsibility, difference and critical reflexivity at the heart of feminist empathic identification. In this view, empathy can bring emotion, ethics and politics together to facilitate contextually sensitive, contingent and, hopefully, politically effective feminist solidarities. Thus understood, empathy creates the effects of certain boundaries but also enables solidaristic connections across those boundaries. It is in the encounter itself, the connection, or contact zone, that progressive empathic solidarities are forged.

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Abigail Locke

Abstract

This chapter offers an overview of psychology’s approach to sex differences in emotion, beginning from a discussion of how psychology has approached emotion. The chapter takes a critical, social-constructionist stance on emotion. Moreover, it introduces a new direction in psychology in which emotion and gender are studied from a discursive perspective, in which emotion words and concepts can function interactionally. The article considers two examples. In the first, a woman is positioned as emotional and by implication, irrational. The second example investigates how the popular concept of ‘emotion work’, one that typically constructs women as down-trodden, can in fact be used as a resource for young women to manage their identities in interactions. Indeed it is constructed as something that makes them powerful in relation to the vulnerable males they discuss.