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The Globalization of Energy

China and the European Union

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Edited by Mehdi Amineh and Guang YANG

Since the conclusion of the 1985 trade and cooperation agreement between the European Community and China, a new political dynamic has been set in motion between two emerging entities: industrializing China and integrating Europe. It is reflected in, among others, European Commission policy strategy papers and, probably more importantly, in numerous sectoral dialogues and agreements. Europe has become China’s largest export destination. For the E.U., China has become its second largest trading partner and its most important source of imports.
The book edited by Mehdi Parvizi Amineh and Yang Guang studies the fueling of this Eurasian production and trading system. This is the policy area of energy supplies and energy security. Cooperation on the basis of complementarity is rather easy. Cooperation in the competition for access to, and share in, non-renewable stocks of oil and gas is more challenging. This book studies a series of bilateral energy relations (Part One) in a global-level, geo-political framework. Policy outcomes in bilateral relations are impacted by multi-lateral networks. Part Two surveys the quest for renewable energy, which is the core of supply security. China has created the largest solar panel production facility. It is capable of producing light-weight magnets used in, among others, wind-power generators and hybrid car engines. This year China is expected to overtake the U.S. as the largest producer of wind turbines. China’s step-by-step reduction of the gap in wealth and power with countries that overran it in the past has so far been remarkably peaceful. We know in both Europe and China all too well that trend-driven change in capability ratios between great powers does not by necessity harmonize well with leadership responses to it. By charting the domain of the energy competition, this book marks an important contribution to the rationalization of energy policy as an area of competitive cooperation.
— Henk Houweling, Instructor at the Europe Institute of the University of Macao

Contributors are Mehdi Parvizi Amineh, Robert M. Cutler, Chen Mo, Eva Patricia Rakel, Daniel Scholten, Philip Sen, Raquel Shaoul, Frank Umbach, Eduard B. Vermeer, Shi Dan, and Yang Guang.

Edwina Kofi-Opata

Introduction Energy lies at the core of every human activity and can be described as having a pervasive influence on all aspects of development—social, economic, and environmental—including livelihoods, access to water, agricultural productivity, health, population levels, education, and

Marco Siddi

Energy trade is an essential economic component of the relationship between the European Union ( eu ) and Russia. Russia is the eu ’s main external supplier of fossil fuels, providing approximately 30 percent of the Union’s oil and coal imports and over one third of its natural gas imports. 1

Jie Zhao and Deborah A. Neher

The soil food web includes three energy pathways, i.e. , root, bacterial and fungal (Moore & Hunt, 1998; Moore et al. , 2003). Energy flow via living roots through a grazing food chain depends on herbivores; energy flow via litter and detritus are through a decomposer food web depending on

Ujjayant Chakravorty, Marie-Helene Hubert and Michel Moreaux

Many countries are promoting biofuels as a substitute for scarce oil. This paper develops a dynamic model of land allocation between food and energy and shows how the model can be calibrated using standard optimization techniques. Some possible implications of the trade-offs between food and energy are discussed. Specifically, we show that the effect of mandates is mainly felt through increased land conversion, which increases indirect carbon emissions. Crude oil prices do not decrease significantly because of leakages.

Robert M. Cutler

The incentive structure for the international energy policy of the Chinese noc s is conditioned, in the most general sense, by three drivers and three constraints. The drivers are: (1) the strategic geoeconomic and foreign policy priorities programmatically defined by authoritative state and

Evolution of the East Central Eurasian Hydrocarbon Energy Complex

The Case of China, Russia, and Kazakhstan

Robert M. Cutler

downstream assets. These were the China National Petroleum Corporation ( cnpc ) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (Sinopec). The key problem was to simplify energy-sector regulation and policy-formation, including definition of the proper role of the state companies. The autopoiesis phase

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The Rock Environment & Energy Institute

reduction pressure, the technology for electricity generation through waste incineration was also included in the list. Previously, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Renewable Energy and the renewable energy policies consisting of several normative documents issued by the National Development

The Rock Environment & Energy Institute

pressure, the technology for electricity generation through waste incineration was also included in the list. Previously, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Renewable Energy and the renewable...

David J. LePoire

of rapid change in Big History. The first pattern occurred soon after the Big Bang, when the energy in the form of high temperature heat cooled due to expansion, resulting in a decreasing rate of change in the way matter and energy behaved. The second pattern is the more delicate emergence of