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Sapna Chhatpar Considine

improve preventive and reactive measures. While we regret that our African NGO entry came too late for this edition and that this edition can only touch on a few subjects, future editions should work to incorporate civil society perspectives, whether on thematic or regional topics. With the support of

Conflict Prevention and Research  382–406 Witold Mucha Rethinking the Structural Prevention of Mass Atrocities  407–429 Stephen McLoughlin Who is the Subject of Atrocities Prevention?  430–452 Bridget Conley-Zilkic International Affinity and the Prevention

J. Marshall Beier

affective responses, activating an impulse to extend protection that is at once constitutive of some subject positions and effacing of others. Half a decade ago, the u.s. -based organisation, Invisible Children, inadvertently provoked a moment of critical reflection along these lines after its ‘Kony 2012

Luke Glanville

worship of idols. Such sins could rightly be punished by Christian armies blessed by the Pope. Infidels could also be punished for denying the entry of peaceful Christian missionaries or for the persecution of Christian subjects. Innocent made clear that the Pope alone could authorize the use of force

Stephen McLoughlin

argues for the need to build on such experience as a basis of prevention. In the edition’s third article, Bridget Conley-Zilkic presents a critique of common conceptions of the ‘subject’ of atrocities. She points out that within the scholarship investigating the causes of genocide and other atrocities

Holding UNPOL to Account

Individual Criminal Accountability of United Nations Police Personnel


Ai Kihara-Hunt

Ai Kihara-Hunt’s Holding UNPOL to Account: Individual Criminal Accountability of United Nations Police Personnel analyzes whether the mechanisms that address criminal accountability of United Nations police personnel serving in peace operations are effective, and if there is a problem, how it can be mitigated.
The volume reviews the obligations of States and the UN to investigate and prosecute criminal acts committed by UN police, and examines the jurisdictional and immunity issues involved. It concludes that these do not constitute legal barriers to accountability, although immunity poses some problems in practice. The principal problem appears to be the lack of political will to bring prosecutions, as well as a lack of transparency, which makes it difficult accurately to determine the scale of the problem.

Kofi A. Annan

time to live up to the agreed stan- dards, however, too often Member States invoked ‘sovereignty’ as a shield to avoid being subject to rules and standards. Of all the UN’s work, the protec- tion of human rights was seen as the most threatening to those States who wanted no outside constraints placed


themselves, and so are then also subject to punishment. What is required is a neutral and authoritative judge to adjudicate disputes and remedy these ‘inconveniences’. Cf. John Locke, Two Treatises on Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 278-82, 359. H.M. Roff / Global

Alex Bellamy and Sara Davies

its responsibilities, the R 2P commitment represents a signifi cant step forward in the global eff ort to end genocide and mass atrocities that began in earnest in the aftermath of the Holocaust. It is worth setting out these paragraphs in full because the wording was meticulously crafted and subjected

Edward Luck

subjects from each other and from threats. But in the end, the subject’s obligation to obey runs no further than the sovereign’s capacity to protect. 8 Th us, RtoP seeks to reinforce one of the essential elements of statehood and sovereignty: the protection of people from organised violence. It does not