(Namibians [Herero] and Palauans / Germany, Kenyans [MauMau] / Britain, Algerians / France, and many others) we may ask whether, and how, its effects may be mitigated. Presumed violations of international law by colonial acts were not in the focus of the research project, considering that the international
leadership of Eduardo Mondlane. By the middle of the 1960s a large number of African colonies had gained their independence (some peacefully e.g. Zambia, and others through bloody struggle e.g. MauMau movement in Kenya under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta). The Portuguese colonies took longer to gain their
could descend into the chaos that had gripped Kenya during the MauMau crisis or, even worse, something like the crisis that the French had been contending with in Algeria. The British approach to Central Africa changed, especially after the autumn 1959 elections, when Macmillan appointed Macleod as
Union (KAU) was formed. By 1951 KAU was demanding independence from the British. 1952: The failure of colonial British governors to accommodate demands by Africans, inter alia in respect of allocation of land to European settlers, was partly responsible for the outbreak of the MauMau war of
“Insurgency and the Opening of Peace Processes”
Journal of Peace Research
Fighting the MauMau: The British Army and Counter-Insurgency in the Kenya Emergency
Cambridge University Press
independence in 1964, the British were anxious to prevent the MauMau revolt of 1952 – 1960 from affecting the politics of the new State and causing further violence. The election of Jomo Kenyatta to the Presidency kept this from happening. 3 The Kikuyus, as one of the politically active tribes, were
CPUCH (n 1) at Article 2(7).
9 E.g. , Press Association, ‘UK to Compensate Kenya’s MauMau Torture Victims’, The Guardian , 6 June 2013 (paid victims of its colonial administration £19.9m as settlement for “abhorrent violations of human dignity”).
10 See Odyssey (n 6), 657 F.3d at 1181 (immunity
Afganistan, Iran, Turkey and other States thereby conferring upon it the status of a conven- tional rule of international laws.' (See, A/AC. 125/SR. 68, p. 14). See also, the statement of the Kenyan delegate on the significance of the MauMau movement as a national liberation movement demanding equal right
colonial rule, the MauMau war in Kenya arose from resistance to British colonial rule and many of the freedom movements especially in 1960s were expressions and claims respecting the rights of others. Mahalu points out that the way the colonial administration was effected denied peoples their human
). 72 I.C.J. Reports 1971, p. 16 and 31; see p. 113 of the IACHR opinion (Garcia Ramirez’ separate concurring opinion, paragraph 5). IJGR 11.4_f4_378-409 12/15/04 5:20 PM Page 401
the most marginalized ethnic and regional sectors over the last 50 years in set- tings as diverse as the MauMau