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Reducing Seabird Bycatch:

From Identifying Problems to Implementing Policy

Euan Dunn

Denzil Miller, Eugene Sabourenkov and David Ramm

seabird bycatch in longline fisheries, (c) trade-related measures to com- bat illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing on CCAMLR species, and (d) general environ- mental protection. CCAMLR’s achievements are evaluated, potential threats to its future effectiveness are identified and some possible

Arie Trouwborst

Abstract

This article discusses the role of international law in environmental governance in the Arctic. It does so from the perspective of bird conservation. Challenges in the latter field are introduced, including the impact of climate change on Arctic bird habitats and the incidental mortality of seabirds in Arctic fisheries. The ability of the current international legal framework in the Arctic to meet these challenges is scrutinised, and future scenarios for its enhancement are explored, including the conclusion of (a) new legally binding agreement(s). Five species receive particular attention as part of this exercise: gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), spoon-billed sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus), Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) and Brünnich’s guillemot (Uria lomvia). Special attention is also devoted to the issue of seabird bycatch.

Appendix G

Tables, Environment

less Eurocentric. Table 1G addresses the prevalence of organic compounds, which some authors have identified as a major concern in the deep ocean. The data on seabirds from the eastern coast of Canada cover a 16-year period, during which there appears to have been some reduction in organochlorine

Alexander Gillespie

are a prohibited species, from a prohibited season, caught with the wrong gear or in the wrong place. 163 27 million tonnes.8 This figure may be an underestimate, in that recreational fishery discards are not included, and in many areas a number of species (such as marine mammals, seabirds and

John A. Cigliano

on how coastal ecosystems are being affected and are helping to develop mitigation strategies. For example, the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team ( COASST ) collects information on beached seabirds in the US Pacific Northwest, which has helped to understand the mechanism(s) of elevated

Evgeny A. Pakhomov and Steven L. Chown

after annexation until the mid-1970s, little offshore biological work was undertaken in the vicinity of the PEI. In 1976, French and South African scientists on board the research vessel MS Marion- Dufresne studied benthos, oceanography, primary productivity, plankton, fish, and seabirds of the PEI

Falk Huettmann

, many of the stock harvests must be assessed as unsustainable. Drastically reduced fish harvests over the last 15 years were reported by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).25 Marine Mammal and Seabird Resources Due to its vast extent and rich food chains, many marine mammal and seabird