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Human Rights and Humanitarian Law

The Quest for Universality

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Edited by Daniel Warner

The question of the universality and relativity of human rights and the relationships between human rights, humanitarian law and refugee protection are the subject of theoretical debates that concern international lawyers, academics, and international organizations. But, most importantly, it should be stressed that these debates are among people who are trying to understand ways of constructing strategies for dealing with the fundamental issue: helping people who are victims of abuse.
This volume, which has emerged from a colloquium organised by the Graduate Institute of International Studies and its Program for the Study of International Organization(s), attempts to project an integrated approach for helping those who are in need and to discuss ways of guaranteeing greater protection of certain universal values that underlie such help. It is the result of ideas shared between the major three organizations in this field, the UN Center for Human Rights, The International Committee of the Red Cross, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and outside experts on the relationship between the different protection regimes.

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Edited by Christiane Bourloyannis-Vrailas and Linos-Alexander Sicilianos

The persistence of human rights violations around the world clearly demonstrates the need to focus more attention on preventive action.
Consequently, international organizations are increasingly strengthening the preventive dimension of their human rights activities. Preventive mechanisms have also emerged and continue to gain ground at the national level.
These new realities, however, seem to have received little attention by the academic community. Yet they raise many important issues, which need to be further explored. The above considerations prompted the Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights to mark its twentieth anniversary by organizing an International Colloquy on the topic of the prevention of human rights violations.
The present Volume contains contributions by the participants, based on the reports they presented at the Colloquy, substantially revised and updated. It constitutes the first attempt at a systematic analysis of the subject of the prevention of human rights violations, focusing on the following five aspects: conventional regimes, non-conventional monitoring mechanisms, international commissioners and Ombudsmen, national Ombudsmen and human rights institutions and the development of a human rights culture. It closes with a theoretical synthesis of the various approaches to the prevention of human rights violations, focusing on the context, the concept and function, as well as methods and techniques of prevention.

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United Nations

Fully indexed, the 1989 edition of the Yearbook is the most comprehensive and authoritative reference publication about the work of the United Nations, other international organizations and related bodies. The book is designed not just for use by diplomats, officials and scholars but also by other researchers, writers, journalists, teachers and students.
This volume of the Yearbook details the activities of the United Nations, its many organs, agencies and programmes, working together to rekindle a new form of multilateral cooperation for a better world. It records the diverse and globe-encompassing activities of the United Nations and its enduring efforts to deal with the world's pressing concerns, particularly matters of international peace and security, disarmament, human rights, the settlement of regional conflicts, economic and social development, the preservation of the environment, control of drugs and narcotic substance abuse, crime prevention, adequate shelter, youth and the ageing and humanitarian assistance for refugees as well as disaster relief.

Edited by M. Kuijer and M.K. Bulterman

The symposium Compliance with Judgments of International Courts was held in Leiden on 7 October 1994, on the occasion of the presentation of a Liber Amicorum to Professor Henry G. Schermers. The subject, Compliance with Judgments of International Courts, was discussed by eminent speakers of the International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Communities. The topic is one of great practical importance and an almost undeveloped area of jurisprudence. While most national legal orders employ centralized mechanisms for the enforcement of judgments, such mechanisms are generally lacking at the international level. This raises particular problems which were highlighted during the symposium. The contributions of individual speakers as well as the discussions during the conference are incorporated in this book. The different contexts in which the three international courts are faced with the problem of compliance, and the different experiences of the courts in regard to compliance with their judgments, provide an opportunity to compare and to learn. Discussion on a subject of such practical importance constitutes a small but valuable contribution to the development of general international law.

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Howard Charles Yourow

The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in the Dynamics of European Human Rights Jurisprudence is the first full-length monograph to treat this subject, which is of central importance to the interpretation and application of the European Convention on Human Rights. It will enrich the understanding and appreciation of judges, advocates, civil servants, scholars, researchers, students, and indeed of anyone whose life and work is affected by national and international human rights adjudication.
This thorough and learned analysis synthesizes the work of the Strasbourg judicial organs, proceeding in the light of the ongoing debates on the appropriate place of the margin doctrine in the Strasbourg jurisprudence. The author's rich conclusions add texture and perspective to the future judicial and scholarly dialogues which will no doubt continue to surround this subject matter.
The text is eminently readable, written in a clear and precise style to be appreciated by the novice and specialist alike. The newcomer to human rights and to the Convention will find it an inviting introduction to complex material; the expert will gain new and expanded insights into the development of the case law rarely to be found in this breadth and depth.

Edited by Sjef Theunis

This publication describes and analyses the role of non-governmental development organizations (NGDOs) of the Southern hemisphere. It is primarily intended as a text for interested outsiders -- such as officials of UN-organizations, politicians, civil servants and scientists -- but it will also contribute to self-knowledge and self-reflection among members of the NGO community. After a brief introduction, the reader is introduced to a substantial number of non-governmental development organizations from three continents by means of organizational portraits, written by the NGDOs themselves.
Each contribution is prefaced by a brief description of the organization, and all address the following basic subjects:- Development -- for whom, by whom? - The NGDO's objectives and strategies - Organizational structure - North-South cooperation - The NGDO's achievements - Staff motivation.

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Dennis Dijkzeul

In which ways do UN organizations carry out their multilateral development cooperation individually, as well as in cooperation with other organizations? This study answers this question from a public- management perspective. Such a perspective has rarely been used in the study of international organizations. In particular, the theoretical topics of governance, program management, and coordination in and among UN organizations are reviewed. More research on management may lead to adaptations within the UN system or information which will neutralize ill-founded criticism. An improved understanding of the internal functioning of UN organizations may enhance their efficiency and impact. Moreover, sometimes member states have such high expectations that the UN system cannot live up to them. In this way, UN members regulate their own disappointments with the UN system. A critical assessment of the limitations under which the UN organizations operate may prevent some of these high hopes and thus forestall some member state dissatisfaction.
This study deals in particular with the United Nations Populations Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and their coordinated behaviour in the Joint Consultative Group on Policy (JCGP). This work will interest and be useful for managers in multilateral organizations and academics studying the functioning of these organizations.

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United Nations

Fully indexed, the 1995 edition of the Yearbook is the single most current, comprehensive and authoritative reference publication about the work of the United Nations, other international organizations and related bodies. The book is designed not just for use by diplomats, officials and scholars but also by other researchers, writers, journalists, teachers and students.
The year 1995 was a remarkably eventful one for the United Nations and in the conduct of international relations. This volume of the Yearbook details the activities of the United Nations, its many organs, agencies and programmes, working together to rekindle a new form of multilateral cooperation for a better world. It records the diverse and globe-encompassing activities of the United Nations and its enduring efforts to deal with the world's pressing concerns, particularly matters of international peace and security, disarmament, human rights, the settlement of regional conflicts, economic and social development, the preservation of the environment, control of drugs and narcotic substance abuse, crime prevention, adequate shelter, youth and the ageing and humanitarian assistance for refugees as well as disaster relief.

Ramesh Thakur

justice. Unlike domestic systems, however, the subjects and objects of global justice are primarily states. Nevertheless, predating the United Nations but accelerating since its establishment in 1945, individuals have increasingly become rights holders while states have been reconceptualised to be duty