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Edited by Tim Allen and John Eade

This book critiques the concepts of cultural functionalism and biologised ethnicity. The chapters examine ethnicities in conflict across Europe, and have been selected on the grounds that they not only provide a rich ethnographic account of overt ethnic conflict or racial violence, but also relate these local situations to wider processes. The contributors do not put forward a single homogeneous point of view, but they all assume perspectives that are opposed to the prevalent simplistic primordialism of most media coverage and political analysis. Most of the contributors are anthropologists and have presented drafts of their chapters at a series of meetings organised by a network called the Forum Against Violence. Many of the articles have appeared previously in the International Journal on Minority and Group Rights (Volume 4). This book should be of interest to academics and practitioners in the fields of human rights, anthropology and related topics.

Religion, Human Rights and International Law

A Critical Examination of Islamic State Practices


Edited by Javaid Rehman and Susan Breau

Freedom of religion is a subject, which has throughout human history been a source of profound disagreements and conflict. In the modern era, religious-based intolerance continues to provide lacerative and tormenting concern to the possibility of congenial human relationships. As the present study examines, religions have been relied upon to perpetuate discrimination and inequalities, and to victimise minorities to the point of forcible assimilation and genocide. The study provides an overview of the complexities inherent in the freedom of religion within international law and an analysis of the cultural-religious relativist debate in contemporary human rights law. As many of the chapters examine, Islamic State practices have been a major source of concern. In the backdrop of the events of 11 September 2001, a considerable focus of this volume is upon the Muslim world, either through the emergent State practices and existing constitutional structures within Muslim majority States or through Islamic diasporic communities resident in Europe and North-America.



Riots taking place in the Northern Irish town of Portadown are analysed in the context of the 'right to march'. The paper concentrates specifically on the demands by a number of Protestant organisations that they should be allowed to parade along roads which they have followed for many years despite the objections of a large majority of the Roman Catholic, Nationalist community living along parts of the route. To understand fully these disputes it is necessary to examine the political and social situation that pertains to a particular time and place. The paper will also draw on comparative material in order to explore the general nature of political rituals since they are also elements of what took place locally which are common to most societies. I particularly wish to reject any notion that ethnic groups in N. Ireland are in some way trapped by their history since, on the contrary, research into public rituals such as these parades reveals the ways in which they are used as a dynamic political resource through changing historical circumstances.

M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

, Protestants, Hindus, Buddhists. These minorities are mainly protected under the principle of non-discrimination under Article 28 D and 28 I of the Constitution, which states that “every person has the right to equality before the law”, and “free from any discrimination for any reasons, and entitled to be

Eric Herman Ngwa Nfobin

of Alsace is Préfet in Marseilles, a Breton, magistrate in Corsica, or the other way round, a Catholic or an atheist may in turn head a university, a Protestant is general or prime minister, a son of an immigrant Jew becomes a top-ranking civil servant, a workman becomes member of government, a


to mention several latest examples. In Northern Ireland (Ulster), violence heightened sectarian ten- sions, where a ‘lasting peace’ remains evasive while politicians from the Protestant majority and from the Catholic minority quarrel over guerilla disar- mament and policing reforms. Communal conflict


, necessarily involves elements of international law; the Protestant majority owing an allegiance to London and wishing to remain part of the United Kingdom as against the minority Catholics who remain committed to a united Ireland. It is also significant to note that in the cases of both Bosnia-Herzegovina and

Tina Kempin Reuter

Bernese Jura, constituted the north-western part of the canton of Berne. 50 The two, now connected, territories did not match: Jura, the conservative, mainly Catholic, mostly French-speaking area that was once autonomous was conjoined with the more liberal, mainly Protestant, mostly German


being a religious conflict between catholics and protestants, there is tremendous symbolism in the fact that agreement in the multi-party talks was reached on one of the most important days in the Christian calendar, BRIAN THOMPSON 236 There is a vast literature on Northern Ireland. The following