Hans Derks

the heritability of acquired characteristics applicable to agriculture. This is already similar to the present gen-technical manipulations of Monsanto and related companies using loopholes in political arrangements to drive home their products against all possible opposition in order to gain a

household property, “that wives protected their households’ wealth against all usurpers, even during the Ottoman rule.” In this case women were supported and defended by the ulema against the whims of the rulers. Wives could also be regarded as heritable property. Hathaway concludes that the elite wife “was

Meir Litvak

was the “right of inheritance” ( ¥aqq al- wa“iyya ) or to use the more popular term, the “third” ( thulth ) paid to mujtahid s from the heritable property of deceased persons. It was usually allocated to a specific religious purpose as well as to the upkeep of the graves of the deceased in the shrine

Jonathan Miran

and the Nile Valley during the period of “Islamic revival.” Their “holiness” usually derived from their claim to sharºf descent and from the possession of baraka , a heritable beneficient force of divine origin. The ‘Ad Shaykh holy family, traders and holy men associated with the politically potent