developed new interpretations of jihād , which included physical labor (Glover, 54).
Ṣūfī brotherhoods were also prominent in anti-colonial movements in EastAfrica, but such brotherhoods were not quite as widespread there as they were (and are) in West Africa. In Somalia, the figure of Muḥammad
, there are several aspects of Ṣūfī endowments that remain unexplored. One such area is the patronage of relics rather than saints for economic and political ends, or what McChesney has described as “reliquary Sufism” (McChesney, Reliquary). A study of Ṣūfī endowments in EastAfrica remains to be
schools. The families of shaykh s benefited from a new system, co-opted by the Ottomans, that allowed them to acquire the most lucrative agricultural lands (Walker). Facing the rising influence of Wahhābī groups, as in eastAfrica at the beginning of the twentieth century, Ṣūfī orders were particularly
is supported by the fact that Ottomans played a
major role in the implantation and diffusion of American crops in the Balkans
and certain European countries as well, sometimes by detours via India and
Some vegetables and fruits studied in this chapter, such as artichokes
region in the early modern period.
Scholarship based on recovered local sources strengthens the argument that the Middle East is part of a sub-region of the Indian Ocean that is bounded by India and EastAfrica, and more loosely linked with the rest of that ocean, and with Asia as a whole. The linkage
then causes bloating, gas, and indigestion, comparable to eating a great deal of beans. A young mammal has no need to produce lactase in adulthood, since it encounters milk only in infancy.
In two parts of the world—Europe and EastAfrica—people have had to depend heavily on fresh milk over a great
coastal naval power under the command of the Sidis of Janjira. The Sidis, who traced their lineage to eastAfrican slaves and servants brought to western India centuries earlier, were both allied with Mughal forces as well as incorporated into their structures of power, holding titles and responsibilities
, and to Aden and the Nile, is supported by his
world map, which roughly outlines the EastAfrican coast, Arabian Peninsula,
and Asian continent above the Indian Ocean. In other words, people could now
understand the physical geographical shapes of the continent to the east by
7 Sanudo, Marino
-Idrīsī (1099 or 1100–1165 or 66), who, writing around 1154 in Sicily, used the
term umam to describe the “peoples” along the EastAfrican Coast or Turkic
peoples in Central Asia.6 At least in the plural, the term umma could be used as
a very general expression for “peoples”, comparable to the Latin gens