Tonal Markedness Scale ( TMS ) (Cheng 1973; Ohala 1978; Hyman and VanBik 2004), and (2) the Obligatory Contour Principle ( OCP ) (Leben 1973; McCarthy 1986). These phonological constraints are phonetically grounded and formalized in the theoretical framework of OptimalityTheory ( OT ) (Prince and
tones within the framework of OptimalityTheory. I will argue that L2 tonal production is also constrained by these phonological universals.
Puzzle 3: T3
The third tone is consistently regarded as the most problematic tone for language learners in both perception and production tasks
, Chapters 4–6 use different working models to present research on various aspects of L2 acquisition of Mandarin tones. Chapter 5 presents quantitative research in which OptimalityTheory ( OT , Prince and Smolensky 1993) serves to model the unconscious tonal knowledge that underlies L2 tonal productions
. (Originally pub-
lished in Chinese as 水语调查研究 by Guizhou People’s Press, Guiyang, 2014).
Cho, Young-mee & Tracy Holloway King. 1996. Semi-syllables and Georgian Clusters.
TREND VI, Stanford University.
———. 2003. ‘Semi-syllables and Universal Syllabification’. In The Syllable in OptimalityTheory. Edited by
Ahmed, Musavir and Aejaz Mohammed Sheikh. 2009. Palatalization in Kashmiri: An
overview. Interdisciplinary Journal of Linguistics 2: 217–228.
Aissen, Judith. 1997. On the syntax of obviation. Language 73(4): 705–750.
Aissen, Judith. 1999. Markedness and subject choice in optimality
(Goldsmith 1990). There is also some use of OptimalityTheory terms when evaluating previous work done using this framework.
Basic syllable structure is (C1)V(C2). C1 is largely unrestricted, but C2 is highly constrained as we will see. C2 also has
1990s several papers on Selayarese syntax were written by Daniel Finer from SUNY Stony Brook (Finer 1994, 1996, 1997a, 1997b, 1998, 1999). They are mostly written from a Principles and Parameters viewpoint, some from an OptimalityTheory perspective. Occasionally he presents data purportedly from