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Author: Hang Zhang

Tonal Markedness Scale ( TMS ) (Cheng 1973; Ohala 1978; Hyman and VanBik 2004), and (2) the Obligatory Contour Principle ( OCP ) (Leben 1973; McCarthy 1986). These phonological constraints are phonetically grounded and formalized in the theoretical framework of Optimality Theory ( OT ) (Prince and

In: Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones
Author: Hang Zhang

tones within the framework of Optimality Theory. I will argue that L2 tonal production is also constrained by these phonological universals. 2.2.3 Puzzle 3: T3 The third tone is consistently regarded as the most problematic tone for language learners in both perception and production tasks

In: Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones
Author: Hang Zhang

, Chapters 4–6 use different working models to present research on various aspects of L2 acquisition of Mandarin tones. Chapter 5 presents quantitative research in which Optimality Theory ( OT , Prince and Smolensky 1993) serves to model the unconscious tonal knowledge that underlies L2 tonal productions

In: Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

. (Originally pub- lished in Chinese as 水语调查研究 by Guizhou People’s Press, Guiyang, 2014). Cho, Young-mee & Tracy Holloway King. 1996. Semi-syllables and Georgian Clusters. TREND VI, Stanford University. ———. 2003. ‘Semi-syllables and Universal Syllabification’. In The Syllable in Optimality Theory. Edited by

In: A Phonological Reconstruction of Proto-Hlai
Author: Saartje Verbeke

Bibliography Ahmed, Musavir and Aejaz Mohammed Sheikh. 2009. Palatalization in Kashmiri: An overview. Interdisciplinary Journal of Linguistics 2: 217–228. Aissen, Judith. 1997. On the syntax of obviation. Language 73(4): 705–750. Aissen, Judith. 1999. Markedness and subject choice in optimality

In: Argument structure in Kashmiri

(Goldsmith 1990). There is also some use of Optimality Theory terms when evaluating previous work done using this framework. 3.2.1 Syllable Structure Basic syllable structure is (C1)V(C2). C1 is largely unrestricted, but C2 is highly constrained as we will see. C2 also has

In: A Grammar of Makasar

1990s several papers on Selayarese syntax were written by Daniel Finer from SUNY Stony Brook (Finer 1994, 1996, 1997a, 1997b, 1998, 1999). They are mostly written from a Principles and Parameters viewpoint, some from an Optimality Theory perspective. Occasionally he presents data purportedly from

In: A Grammar of Makasar