hoplite. 41 Meanwhile, ‘Scythians’ often appear with a woman or an old man, in another scene connected with setting off to battle – performance of extispicy (prediction on the basis of the entrails of a sacri fi ced animal): 10 of the group of 19 vases examined by Lissarrague show ‘Scythians’ (Fig. 8). 42
sharp rise in Spartiate deaths occurred in a terrible earthquake that hit the polis of Sparta in the 460s, and then more Spartiate deaths occurred over many decades after the earthquake in the wars of the fifth century. 7 Yet despite normal predictions as generated by Thomas Malthus and subsequent
Architectural Terracottas of the Archaic to the Hellenistic Period from SinopeDecorated architectural terracottas held in the Sinope Museum are re-examined here from several angles: techniques of manufacture, combinations of different series on one and the same building, importing of models, export of these exclusively local products to cities of the North Pontic region, style and chronology. Reconsidered so as to take into account all significant features, this form of production ‐ recorded from as early as the 6th century BC ‐ provides some continuation of the ‘Milesian’ tradition, which was widespread in the North of the Aegean and in the poleis of the Black Sea region. Yet, from the second quarter of the 4th century BC onwards, this production also manifests real originality of its own. Sinope would, however, probably not have developed its own style, if it had not received specific orders from Panticapaeum and the main cities of the Bosporan Kingdom. After gradually being deprived of this stimulus for production towards 300 BC, the workshop in Sinope quickly lost its impressive reputation, even though the volume of its tile production remained considerable. From all points of view, it would appear to have been subject to the political and economic vicissitudes experienced by its clients.
The purpose of this chapter is to examine the astronomical knowledge, and more specifically the astronomical tools, that ancient astrologers in Mesopotamia and the Greco-Roman world possessed and used. Much of its content will be well known to specialists in ancient astronomy and astrology, but this is the first broad treatment of the topic. The roughly 1200-year evolution of astrological practice surveyed in this chapter is characterized by several shifts. First, interpretation of direct observations of the heavens was progressively supplanted by reliance on predicted astronomical data. Second, prediction based on the principle that astronomical phenomena observed in the past would approximately repeat after certain time intervals (called recurrence periods) gave way to mathematical models that had a more remote derivation from observations. Finally, astrologers became increasingly removed from the production of the astronomical information they used and increasingly dependent on published almanacs comprising precomputed data. This chapter is thus a contribution to understanding the expertise of an ancient astrologer as well as its limits.